You can not know the history of carbon material development

arbon, the source of life, it is the body of all organisms on the skeleton elements, is the most important element of the human body. Carbon in Future is mainly used in the form of fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and graphene, and is used in communications, space exploration, biomedicine and other fields.

Carbon, the source of life, it is the body of all organisms on the skeleton elements, is the most important element of the human body.
———————————–
[Carbon material development history]
Carbon in Future is mainly used in the fields of communication, space exploration, biomedicine and so on, mainly in the form of fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and graphene.

———————————–
Fullerene
Fullerene (Fullerene) is a third element of allogeneic carbon found. Any substance consisting of carbon, a globular, oval, or tubular structure, can be called fullerene, and fullerenes refer to a class of substances. Fullerene is similar to graphite, but there are only six rings in the structure of graphite, and there may be five rings in fullerene. 1985 Robert Curl et al prepared C60. In 1989, the German scientists Huffman and Kraetschmer’s experiments confirmed the cage structure of the C60, and the fullerenes discovered by the physicists were pushed by the scientific community to a new stage of research. The structure of the fullerene is similar to that of the architect Fuller, so it is called fullerene.

application
industry
Fullerene is a newly discovered industrial material, its characteristics: 1. Hardness is harder than diamonds 2. 180 degrees (ductility) than steel 100 times 3. It can conduct conductive, conductive than copper strong, only weight One-sixth of copper 4. Its composition is carbon, so it can be extracted from the waste.

Imagine our future life will be “no metal wire” “fullerene (non-metallic) reinforced building” “fullerene bulletproof vest” “fullerene car shell” … …

The idea of ​​the “Tokyo Bay Pyramid City” also fullerenes as the main building materials, nano-Bak tube (fullerene) molecules can be infinitely extended (the longer the length of the tube, the more atoms, so the number of atoms Not necessarily C60), and the Barker tube is a combination of carbon atoms.

application
Electricity, light, magnetism
C60 itself determines the symmetry of the C60 itself has a nonlinear optical properties. As a new compound, it is very important to study the application of electricity, magnetism, light and so on. In fact, C60 is because of its superconductivity under certain conditions, and its charge transfer complex has ferromagnetism. Great interest and concern.

application
Physical properties
Lubricants and abrasives C60 have a special spherical shape, is the most round all molecules of molecules; In addition, C60 structure to make it with special stability. At the molecular level, a single C60 molecule is exceptionally hard, which makes C60 a core material for advanced lubricants.

• CVD diamond film
Another potential application of fullerenes is that they play an important role as a uniform nucleation site for the growth of diamond films.

The diamond film has many applications in the military field, such as the impact coating as an armored vehicle surface for making optical (X-ray, particle beam) windows, semiconductor wafers, high hardness surface gears, diamond-fiber composites, and high temperature And radiation-resistant electronic devices.

• High strength carbon fiber
In 1991, Nippon Electric’s Iceland discovered a tubular carbon-barbed tube with a unique geometrical structure and marvelous conductivity, with high tensile strength and high thermal stability. The special electrical and mechanical properties of the Pakistani tube make it of great application value.

• High energy bombardment of particles
C60 can get or lose electrons to form ions, charged Ba Ji ball can be used as a physical collision of high energy bombardment particles.
 
application
Electrochemical aspects

• Light conductor

The light guide material is the basic part of the copier, facsimile machine and laser printer. The old light guide material uses selenium as the sensitizer, and the more advanced organic photoconductive polymer has replaced the selenium material. Researchers at DuPont found that PVK polymers doped with 1% C60 (possibly a mixture of C60 and C70) were a new class of high performance light conductors, and similar products have been used in electrophotographic technology.

• Superconducting materials

The discovery of doped C60 superconductors is another major achievement in the field of superconductivity. The superconductor has a relatively high critical temperature. The critical temperature of doped C60 superconductors is not only much higher than that of all organic molecular superconductors, Previously discovered metal and alloy superconductors, only lower than the hottest oxide ceramic superconductor.

• Nonlinear optics

Experimental and theoretical studies have shown that C60 and C70 fullerenes are good non-linear optical materials, C60 / C70 mixture (C70 about 10%) of the nonlinear optical coefficient of about 1.1 × 10-9esu, C76 even have Light polarization.

C60 film has a high optical efficiency, this property makes the C60 in the laser optical communication and optical computer has an important potential application, and is expected to put into practice in the short term.

application
Skin care products
As the fullerene can affinity free radicals, with a strong antioxidant capacity, can play the role of activation of skin cells, prevent skin decline. About Fullerene in the scavenging of free radicals Now there are nearly 30,000 papers published, nearly 3 thousand patents were recognized. Because of this, since the 21st century fullerenes began to be used as a raw material for cosmetics, with anti-wrinkle, whitening, prevention of aging of the outstanding value, become the attention of cutting-edge beauty ingredients.

application
Multivariate study

The fullerene derivatives are covalently or non-covalently formed with electron-rich groups such as porphyrins and ferrocene to form a multimode for the study of intramolecular energy, charge transfer, photo-induced energy and charge transfer.
application
Organic solar cells
Since 1995, Dr. Yu Gang made the fullerene derivatives PCBM ([6,6] -phenyl-c61-butyricacid methyl ester, referred to as PC61BM or PCBM) for bulk heterojunction organic solar cells since organic solar cells have been Hundreds of development, including three companies have been doped PCBM organic solar cell business, so far most of the organic solar cells to fullerene as an electronic receptor material.
———————————–

Carbon nanotubes
In 1991, Iijima, an expert at NEC’s laboratory in Japan, discovered carbon nanotubes, a carbon molecule composed of tubular coaxial nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes have typical layered hollow structure characteristics, and the formation of carbon nanotubes between the layers of carbon nanotubes is a quasi-circular tube structure, and most of them are composed of pentagonal sections. The tube body consists of a hexagonal carbon ring microstructure unit, and the end cap portion consists of a polygonal structure consisting of a pentagonal carbon ring, or a polygonal tapered multiwall structure. Is a one-dimensional quantum material with a special structure (radial dimension is the order of the nanometer, the axial dimension is the order of the micrometer, and the ends of the tube are substantially sealed).

classification

Carbon nanotubes can be divided into single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs) and multi-walled nanotubes (MWNTs) according to the number of graphene sheets. The multi-walled tube is formed at the beginning Time, between the layers and layers can easily become a trap center and capture a variety of defects, so the wall of the wall tube is usually covered with small hole-like defects. Compared with the multi-wall tube, single-walled tube is composed of a single layer of cylindrical graphite layer, the diameter of the distribution of small size, less defects, with a higher uniform consistency.




Application prospects

Carbon nanotubes can achieve miniaturization of memory
Carbon nanotubes own light weight, with a hollow structure, can be used as an excellent container for storing hydrogen, the storage of hydrogen density even higher than the density of liquid or solid hydrogen. Proper heating, hydrogen can be slowly released. Researchers are trying to make lightweight portable hydrogen storage containers with carbon nanotubes.

In the carbon nanotubes can be filled with metal, oxide and other substances, so that carbon nanotubes can be used as a mold, first with metal and other substances filled with carbon nanotubes, and then corrosion of carbon layer, you can prepare the smallest nano-scale Of the wire, or a new one-dimensional material, in the future of molecular electronic devices or nanoelectronic devices have been applied.

The use of the nature of carbon nanotubes can produce a lot of excellent performance of composite materials. For example, carbon nanotubes reinforced plastic mechanical properties, good conductivity, corrosion resistance, shielding radio waves. Carbon nanotubes composite made of cement is made of good impact resistance, anti-static, wear resistance, high stability, not easy to affect the environment.

Carbon nanotubes also provide physicists with the thinnest capillary to study the capillary mechanism, giving chemists the smallest tube for nanochemical reactions. Carbon nanotubes on the tiny particles can cause carbon nanotubes in the current swing frequency changes, the use of this, in 1999, Brazil and the United States scientists invented the accuracy of 10-17kg accuracy of the “nano-scale”, can weigh The quality of a single virus. Then the German scientists developed a single atomic “nano scale”.

———————————–

Graphene

Graphene is a two-dimensional carbon material, is a single layer of graphene, bilayer graphene and multi-layer graphene collectively. Was discovered in 2004, the discoverer of the University of Manchester, UK Professor Andre – Heim in 2010 won the Nobel Prize in Physics.

classification

Monolithic graphene (Graphene)

Refers to a layer of two-dimensional carbon material consisting of carbon atoms that are periodically packed in a benzene ring structure (ie, hexagonal honeycomb structure).

Bilayeror double-layer graphene

Refers to a two-layer two-layer structure (ie, hexagonal honeycomb structure) cyclically compacted carbon atoms in different stacking methods (including AB stacking, AA stacking, AA ‘stacking, etc.) stacking a two Dimensional carbon material.

Few-layer

Refers to a two-dimensional carbon material consisting of 3-10 layers of carbon atoms which are periodically packed in a benzene ring structure (i.e., hexagonal honeycomb structure) in a stacking manner (including ABC stacking, ABA stacking, etc.) The

Multi-layer graphene (multi-layer graphene)

Refers to a thickness of 10 layers above 10nm below the benzene ring structure (ie, hexagonal honeycomb structure) cyclically packed carbon atoms in different stacking methods (including ABC stacking, ABA stacking, etc.) stacking a two-dimensional carbon material.

main application

With the batch production and large-scale problems such as the gradual breakthrough in the industrialization of graphene the pace of industrialization is accelerating, based on existing research results, the first commercial applications of the field may be mobile equipment, aerospace, new energy Battery area.

Consumer Electronics Show can be curved on the screen high-profile, as the future development trend of mobile device display. Flexibility shows the future market is broad, and the prospect of graphene as the base material is also promising.

New energy batteries are also an important area of ​​the earliest commercialization of graphene. Flexible photovoltaic panels with graphene nano-layers on the surface can greatly reduce the cost of making transparent, deformable solar cells, which may be used in small digital devices such as night vision goggles and cameras. In addition, the successful development of graphene super battery, but also to solve the new energy vehicle battery capacity and the long charging time.

Due to the high conductivity, high strength, ultra-thin and other characteristics, graphene in the field of aerospace military applications is also extremely prominent advantages.

———————————–

“carbon”
Diversified performance,
Making scientists fascinated,
The study of “carbon” has also become
They never give up the subject.