Liang Shuming was 5 years old and opened the Mongolian. After reading the “Three Character Classics” and “Hundred Family Names”, he went on to read the four books and five classics and caught up with the reforms. Father Liang Juchuan did not agree with children’s reading. At this time, by taking the opportunity of “stopping the imperial examination and abolishing the eight shares”, he broke his son’s path of reading the Bible and asked him to read “The Rhyme of the Earth.” The content of this book, as its name suggests, is mostly Europa, Asia, the Pacific Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, and so on. It is about the world trend. In the second year, Beijing’s first “foreign school”, the Chinese and Western elementary school, appeared. Liang Shu was sent to his school by his father. Although he was transferred to school several times because of social turmoil, he also went home to teach him to teach for one year when he was 11 years old, but he still did not study the four books and five classics, but read the elementary school textbooks. He later recalled: “I am writing about four books. The Five Classics have not been read yet, but only seen. This is very rare among people of my age.” In 1906, 13-year-old Liang Shuo was admitted to Shuntian High School and graduated from Shuntian High School in 1911. This is the final qualification of Liang Shuming.
Liang Shu once said: “My self-study began in the elementary school era.” While the same age child died in the four books and five classics, he was able to relish an extracurricular reading – “Enlightenment Pictorial”.
In the middle school era, Liang Shu still read the newspaper without looking at the “Zheng Book”. It seems that it is difficult to find such a similar growth experience among the scholars who are the same as Liang Shuming. This should be attributed to the father’s “laissez-faire” to him. Liang Shuming has repeatedly stated in some memoirs. He said: “Because the father took trust and relaxed attitude towards his children, he only showed his opinions, never interfered, and always cared about the future of the country. He talked about the national affairs with me. This has fulfilled my self-study and made me I secretly reveal my sense of responsibility to the national society, and despise the life of a person who is only a person and a family. This upward mentality has prompted me to pursue life and social problems from the beginning.
For this reason, Liang Shu and those “masters of Chinese studies” are taking two very different paths. They are the first to lay the foundation, and then concentrate on asking the students. Liang Shu said: “I didn’t have any knowledge, but I have thoughts, and the thoughts come from my problems. It comes from my seriousness. Because I can be serious, there will be life. The problem is that there will be life thoughts and philosophy of life.” He has subverted some of the iron laws on the road to study, which is especially thought-provoking. At the same time, his father’s influence on Liang Shuming is not only profound but also lasting. In 1918, Liang Juchuan went to the lake for the first three days of the 60th birthday because he was worried about the country. Before he left, he was still discussing the international situation with his son. He asked Liang Shu: “Will the world be alright?” Liang Shuming said: “I believe the world is Going all day long.” He nodded and said, “It’s good to be good.” This is the last sentence he left in the world.
Not a scholar
Liang Shuming is not a scholar. This is not a problem. In 1916, when he was 23 years old, he taught under the recommendation of President Cai Yuanpei to teach the philosophy door of the Peking University. The following year, he started to talk about “Indian philosophy” and then “Confucian philosophy.” When talking about “Confucian philosophy,” because of the enthusiastic listeners, in addition to the average student, there are three or forty-year-old predecessors, as well as some of the current and later. Four years later, the publication of “Western Culture and Philosophy” made him a famous pioneer of Neo-Confucianism. He is famous for his knowledge. The world has always seen him as a “famous scholar.”
However, Liang Shuming himself has never regarded himself as a scholar, and he has never learned to learn. He made a clear statement in many words or speeches during his lifetime. In 1930, he wrote in an article entitled “Why am I a person”: “What do you misunderstand me? This is a misunderstanding that I am a scholar, or even a ‘philosopher’, ‘Buddha’, ‘ The nationalist ‘…this is really not suitable on both sides: one side is ruining scholars and nationalists; one side also burying my simple and pure original features… talking about learning, I am only forced, not my heart… I am just good There is a problem – especially from the personnel, there is a problem. If there is a problem, it is necessary to use your mind; if you have your mind, you will have your own opinion; if you have the opinion, then you will have an action. The outsider sees me as if I am talking about learning. I have no idea to solve my problems with my heart. I am not interested in learning. I have always talked about philosophy and psychology. This attitude has always been this. Today’s talks involve politics and the economy, but this is still the case.”
At this time, Liang Shu is less than 40 years old, and he has not changed in the latter half of his life. In Liang Shuming’s view, Confucianism or Buddhism is a study of life practice. He once said: “Confucius’s things are not a kind of thought, but a kind of life.” He thinks that if the Confucius doctrine is only used as a philosophical thought in the university lecture hall, then “the inherent spiritual essence is dead!” It is emphasized that Confucius’s study is devoted to the self-consciousness and autonomy of the human body and mind, and changes and improves the human life as a whole, and uses his wisdom for self-cultivation practice. It is not important to memorize the four books and five classics. It is important to apply the Confucian spirit to yourself and to use it in human society. This view runs through Liang Shuo’s life. He still believes that with the development of science and technology, Chinese people have something to learn, and Chinese ancient books are full of enthusiasm. Except for a few researchers, not everyone has to read, but there is a book. The Analects of Confucius, as Chinese intellectuals, must be read.
Ai Wei, a professor at the University of Chicago, has had more than a dozen long talks with Liang Shuming. He called Liang “the last Confucian.” In the summer of 1924, he resigned from the years of the year when he resigned from the Peking University faculty. After that, he never returned to the university’s podium. At that time, several universities asked Liang Shu to go, but Liang Lan declined these invitations. Years later, in a letter to the nephew, he said: “I have no thoughts on the side, there is only one thought: responsibility.” He said: “I have responsibility everywhere, and I always put the biggest problem in my heart. The so-called biggest problem is the so-called China issue.” Driven by such beliefs, Liang Shunan came to the north and spent decades on his road to “life practice.”
Please see Liang Shuming’s experience: After resigning from Peking University in 1924 (31 years old), he used seven or eight years to run schools and study in Shandong, Guangdong, Shanghai, Shanxi, and Henan. Since 1931, Liang Shuo has settled in Zouping, Shandong Province, and started a seven-year rural construction activity. Two years later, he received his wife and two children from Beiping to Zouping. The life of the whole family is in a sense equal to one world to another. His eldest son, Liang Peikuan, recalled the scene at the time: “Zouping County is very small, there is no department store… no water and electricity, we live there, we eat well water, and we have oil lamps. Of course, there are no theaters and the like. In addition to the county town of Xiguan, there is a bustling hustle and bustle in the market on the morning of the 5th and 12th, and the county town is always cold and clear. Basically, it is rural life… Father usually eats with students in the institute. Living together, only occasionally returning home.”
In such an environment, Liang Shuo is seven years old. Liang Shuming had a brief summary of these seven years on several occasions. For example, half a century later, he said in his self-written “Life Story”: “In 1931, he and his colleagues went to Shandong Zouping to establish the Shandong Rural Research Institute…. It cultivated the group living habits of farmers for all the villagers or villagers. With the ability to organize, popularize culture, change the customs, and use groups to organize the introduction of science and technology to improve production, develop the rural economy, and fundamentally build the country. After seven years of this experiment, it was forced to be forced by the Japanese invasion in 1937. stop.”
The outbreak of the Anti-Japanese War has caused Liang Shuming’s seven-year rural construction activity to come to an abrupt end. But then he entered his politically active years. In January 1938, Liang Shu visited Yan’an and had extensive contacts with the leaders of the Chinese Communist Party. He talked with Mao Zedong eight times (two of them all night long). In February 1939, Liang Shu went to the enemy guerrilla zone in Jinci, Henan, Henan, Sulu and other places to patrol, with the Kuomintang generals Jiang Dingwen, Yan Xishan, Wei Lihuang, Cheng Qian and the Eighth Route Army, the leaders of the New Fourth Army, Luo Rongzhen, Chen Guang, Peng Xuefeng, etc. After the meeting, I spent eight months in the harsh environment of the bullets, the winds, the meals, and even the ups and downs. Later, when he reviewed this experience, he used the words “after hardships”. At the end of 1940, Liang Shuming and Huang Yanpei, Zuo Yusheng and Zhang Junmai jointly organized the “China Democratic Political League” (NLD), trying to coordinate the relationship between the two parties through the “third aspect” and promote the unity of the two parties. The final victory of the Anti-Japanese War. After the victory of the Anti-Japanese War, Liang Lan took over as Secretary-General of the NLD in April 1946. Until his later years, he still said in a concluding speech: “I am not a scholar, not a simple thinker, a theorist, I am an implementer, a doer… I am a person to practice, It’s a person who wants to work hard.”
30 to 50 years old, is regarded as the golden age of life. Most of the “representative works” of scholars come from this age group. After Liang Jue left Beijing University at the age of 31, he ran away from the society for more than 20 years. All the social activities and political activities he participated in were undoubtedly belonging to the practice of life away from the study under the guidance of Confucianism. In this sense, Liang Shu is a social activist although he enjoys the name of a scholar. The starting point of his various social activities is the two problems he has been thinking and pursuing throughout his life: one is the Chinese problem, and the other is the life problem.
Out of the custom
In 1934, Liang Shu wrote an article entitled “Three Attitudes to Life”, the first of which he called “seeking for help” and explained: “This means that people are eagerly seeking in real life. Such as diet, banquet, reputation, sound, color, goods, profit, etc.. Throughout Liang Shuo’s life, the above-mentioned “seeking for help” things, he looked very light, and even turned a blind eye. When answering Ai’s question, he said: “I always put my mood flat and the lighter the better. My life is like this. For example, I drink white water, don’t drink tea. I think tea, it I am a little excited. I don’t want to drink tea; boiled water is good. I eat diet, eat light, all meat, I don’t want to eat anything that people think is delicious, and I eat very little.” 1950s At the beginning, Liang Shuming wrote in a “self-review outline”: “I don’t want to eat and drink,” “The evil is greater than the vulgar, and the vulgar is the shame.” Many examples show that Liang Shu has reached this realm.
Liang Pei-kuan once commented on his father: “The attitude of a lifetime is not to eat and eat, regardless of family. It is his principle not to go through the big things that are dragged down by family affairs.” Liang Pei-kuan took his own example and recalled that when the mother was alive, family affairs were After the mother’s death, the father gave his brothers to the school or relatives to take care of their lives. The father’s education towards himself and his younger brother has always adopted a laissez-faire attitude. “From elementary school to middle school, my father never asked me for my test scores. I never asked for a transcript. I don’t care if I’m taking college. When I was in the first day of school, my test scores were generally medium, and my father did not ask for higher requirements.” “With one year of winter vacation, the school suddenly notified me to make up for geography. At that time, it was 60 points, and I took 59 points. Notice When I sent it alone, my father was just next to me. I showed it to him. After he saw it, he gave it back without saying a word. There was no dissatisfaction or any criticism. I understood what he meant and failed. What you are doing, you know, you don’t need me to say, I can’t say it; what should I do after failing, you should know it yourself, and don’t need me to say more.” In Liang Peikuan’s memory, this is the only time for his father. See your own achievements. Later, when it came to the issue of “subsidiary fathers”, Liang Shuo made it clear that if you have this intention, it is also very good, but he does not have this requirement. What he means is that as long as you take the needs of the country and society as the starting point for considering your own future, doing things big and small, it is up to you to decide what to do. Like Liang Shuming’s attitude towards the growth of his children, today, no one can do it. Even at that time, few people at that time could do it. Not only the growth of children, but also many “models” that the world has valued, it is not impossible for Liang Shuming to break. For example, Chinese New Year is almost non-existent in Liang Shuming’s life. When he was in the village school of Huixian County in Henan Province in 1930, he wrote to his relatives that if he saw the suffering of ordinary people, he would not have the heart to return to Beijing for the New Year. At that time, the soldiers were not divided. In this year, he was sleeping with his clothes, and he spent one by one in the sound of firecrackers and gunshots. In the Spring Festival of 1935, he visited the military strategist Jiang Baili in Shanghai. The Spring Festival of 1936 was on the way from Luzhou to Nanning. At the beginning of 1938, Liang Shu went to Yan’an, and when he returned home by train to Kaifeng, he was just 30 years old. He lived alone in Henan Hotel, and he passed the year. In the Spring Festival of 1939, he was on his way to the enemy’s rear inspection. On February 18th, the diary remembered: “On the New Year’s Eve, the car passed through Sanyuan, and Zhao Zhaowen was in a garden; late arrived in Luochuan, and snow fell on the way.” Spring Festival, 1940, Liang Shuming Feel and child The time spent together is too small. It is convenient to take two children to Chongqing Beibei with winter vacation. New Year’s Eve is in the nearby Jinyun Temple. After liberation, life is stable, no longer running around, and he is also in peacetime during the New Year. He is generally writing, never treating it as a special day.
Many celebrities have a hobby like this or that outside the industry. In the 1930s, Yu Qingyi, a beauty scholar who stayed in the world, asked Liang Shu what hobbies he had. Liang A: My hobby is to think about problems. Yu listened and said that this is terrible! Thinking about the problem is a kind of work. How can it be good? One of Liang Shu’s students once took a train with Liang Shu and his wife. When they saw Liang and his wife all the way, they said to Liang Shu that they should chat during the trip. Why didn’t you sit there and say nothing? Liang Shu said, you should not think that I am idle. When you look at me, it may be my busiest time. It was because of this “hobby” that Liang Shuo couldn’t stop his brain when he was teaching at Peking University. As a result, he suffered from severe insomnia and his body could not support it. He presented his resignation to President Cai Yuanpei. He once said that his mind “is like a long rope, and if it is radiated, it will not be recovered.” He also wrote two sentences in a notebook: “Thought is fun, work is not a burden.”
Liang Shuxin believes that Buddha is even regarded as a Buddhist scholar by many people. But he never burns incense and worships Buddha. He never worships Buddha at home, and he only visits the temple. Liang Shuming’s belief in Buddhism and the desire of all beings to make a wish from the point of interest are two different things. Religious beliefs have high and low points in the realm. The latter is satisfied with idolatry, and the mentality is not refined. The former is to draw useful things from Buddhism. Liang Shuming went into Buddhism because of his understanding and admiration for Buddhist teachings and teachings. But some things in form, he does not pursue. For example, his food is not the same as that of the monks. He likes milk, eggs, and other foods that provide the nutrients that the body must consume. He does not reject them. Liang Shuming is known as the founder of Neo-Confucianism, but he never used this title as his own. It is the doctrine of Confucius. He only looked inside the hall and saw some of it. He did not dare to say that he had entered the room, but Some people are a little more. His academic realm, in that year and today, is very rare.
Way of making friends
Liang Shuo had a wide range of friendships throughout his life and had dealt with countless figures including leaders of the KMT and the Communist Party.
When Liang Shuming was carrying out rural construction activities in Zouping, Han Fuzhen was the chairman of Shandong Province. He could not help but rely on his powers. When Liang Shuming met with Mao Zedong at Peking University, it was considered “old.” In 1938, he visited Mao Zedong in Yan’an and talked many times. He was discussing issues, not old ones. During the Anti-Japanese War, Liang Shuming had frequent contact with many “third parties”. He also focused on the current enemy, eased the contradictions between the Kuomintang and the Communist Party, and did not weaken the anti-Japanese war. He realized that the power of the individual is limited, and he must unite more people and work together to form strength.
Liang Shuming has been in contact with people in his work. He always regards the principle of seeking common ground while reserving differences and regards cooperation and cooperation as a general direction. There is no disagreement between him and the co-workers. He does not have any opinion about what they are doing. For example, Luo Longji and Zhang Bojun are both talented and active people, but they all have their own shortcomings. They are politically ambivalent. Liang Shuo has a lot of opinions on this, but he does not agree with it, but for the big picture, he is willing and working hard with them. Cooperation, with a clear intention, is to solve China’s problems. It is also this principle of no distracting behavior that has enabled Liang Shuo to win the respect of everyone.
Writing here, I can’t help but think of a sentence – “taking the world as your responsibility.” This is a motto that everyone has heard is not new. It is also a motto that everyone understands that it is more than just a slogan, but Liang Shuo did it. This sentence can be used to summarize Liang Shu’s life, and can also be used to answer questions in this article.