Quite different, many of the younger poets looked at the matter. They wanted to make the poetic truth practical, and were poets and heroes of their novels and epics at the same time. Some wanted to be monks, others to be cruising knights. Here, poetry and life became one and the same; the poets lost themselves to their material, and this could only give distortions. Often Tieck was reminded of Don Quixote; The latter was no more serious about his deeds than the new gallant poets, who did not think that this minne, this knightly virtue, this vassalage which they glorified, neither now nor ever existed. He stood here on Goethe’s points of view, that is, on the true of all poet. From life itself poetry had to spring; but an alleged poetry, which the individual thought to carry into life, could only end in perversity and absurdity. Everywhere he missed the unadulterated truth of nature, without which no art can exist; everywhere the made, the arbitrary looked through.
This new system called followers and opponents the romantic school, and Tieck considered them the head of them. But that was a big misunderstanding. He had always been at war with the school, now he was supposed to be the founder of one. He had never thought of it; to a party and sectarian, to a literary agitator, he lacked nothing more than everything. He fought in his own way, but he had never mixed in the daily literature. He had too much to do with himself to think of a mobile and splintering activity; he was too deep, if you want too heavy, too comfortable. He hated all partyism; He also hated it because it required submission and abandonment of the individual.
When he was associated with the Schlegel and Novalis, they had also spoken of a new party, a critical or a Schlegel school. However, they were linked by a friendly relationship, as everywhere those who agree in certain basic views. Even then they were treated by the opponents as indiscriminate mass and one made responsible for the other. They did not even think of organizing and organizing, even if they united in the “Athenaeum” and wrote sonnets on each other. And what did these sonnets prove in the end? Had not Klopstock, his friends and the older poets of the eighteenth century made enough odes and songs on each other? No one had taken offense. From the very beginning, too, Tieck went his own way so independently that it more than once threatened to cause serious division with the old Schlegel.
Now, much less than before, he wanted to recognize a romantic school. He could not agree if he wanted to talk about romanticism as a special genre of poetry. It could appear under changing historical conditions, but in and of itself it always had to be and remain the same. This was his position at the time when he made his residence in Dresden, decided. At the moment when he was greeted as the second poetic head of Germany, he was nevertheless internally isolated. It could not be otherwise. Like all great natures, he was too self-possessed, too many-sided, to ever be able to tune into the general call of the day, even if his words were made into a field-cry. In the mouth of others there were other words.
Opposites and disagreements of this kind were not to be feared in Dresden. The literary circles that ruled here, and with which a touch could not fail, were of a very different nature; Some of them came from those times long ago considered abortive. There was a local daily literature which, guided by well-known men, referred to public opinion exercised little influence, and acted as a kind of power. A number of medium-skilled, feather talent were united here. With no depth and determined direction, they were content to serve the needs and tastes of the day, and entertain the public. They agreed to be undecided devotees of the romantic school. According to education and inclination, they belonged rather to the old Enlightenment, but depending on the circumstances they could also be heard in the new tone.
The most respected and honored authority was Böttiger, with whom Tieck was brought together by his own skill almost twenty-five years after the “Puss in Boots”. After Herder’s death, called to Dresden, scholarship, versatility, and activity made him soon the leader and teacher of public opinion in scholarly and artistic matters. As an elegant philologist and student of antiquity he had a position in the antique cabinet; but he also frequently heard about literature, drama and art in general.
Like Böttiger, the most famous of the local poets also came from the older, even oldest school, Tiedge, the friend of Elisa von der Recke, the much celebrated and garlanded singer of the “Urania”. His poetry was still before Goethe’s time, for he was educated in Gleim’s circle of friends. The essence of these views and poems was the good, old, sober prose, which had counted for the many except for the “Werther” many. Tiedge had not stopped there. He had acquired the sentimental-declamatory tone of later times, not without a talent for form, and the primeval dryness hid beneath rich, rich-sounding, frothing verses. We nig was expressed here by much; but this oratorical and sober virtue met with unanimous applause. His “Urania” underwent circulation after edition, and ancient pious ladies and young girls made pilgrimages to worship the foolish poet.
Tieck and Tiedge, formerly known to each other, had both relocated to Dresden at the same time in 1819. Without having any closer relations, they continued the social and literary intercourse in a comfortable way. When Tiedge was busy with his last teaching poem, “The Market of Life,” he begged Tieck to prove to him some readable modern philosopher, since he was unknown in this literature but wished to speak of it in his poem. Tieck proposed Solger’s writings to him without much honor. For when Tiedge came across a sharp criticism Klopstock’s, he threw the book with disgust. To strange confusion was often the similarity of the names cause. Tieck sometimes claimed in jest that he had had to accept tacitly and patiently some of the homage of overzealous admirers, who had actually been his colleague. At one point it even happened that a well-known, but not well-known native doctor, who wished to prove his respect for poets, in a society shared Tieck’s well-being with the words: “Vivat Oranien!” “That was a great hero,” replied Tieck, cheerful on it, “we can already live that!”
A third much-loved novelist was Friedrich Schulze, called in the book world Laun. Already in 1801 Tieck had made his acquaintance, and a sonnet of him in Schlegel’s tone, without knowing the author, had entered the third hand of theMusenalmanach found for 1802. It was a quiet, unpretentious character, and a skillful, easy talent. With a withdrawn air, since the nineties he has been responsible for the entertainment of the public through a long series of novels and stories in which he soon intervened in ordinary life, now in the age of chivalry or in the ghost world. Gustav Schilling, who made it to a hundred volumes, developed a true factory activity in these areas, and Richard Roos gave him little in it.
macrolide norfloxacin nicotinate
The owners of the daily press were Friedrich Kind and Theodor Hell. The first had appeared as a narrator and had gradually gifted the public with his “mallows”, “tulips” and “lime-tree blossoms”, to which the “forget-me-not” of Hell came. Kind also tried his hand at acting and soon gained a fast-paced fame with his “Freischütz”. Hell worked in the comedy; he adhered to the vaudevilles of the French. These later joined as tragic writer Eduard Gehe. They had a common center in the literary and sociable association, the Liederkreis, which had previously been founded by Laun, Hell, and Kuhn, and their daily paper was the Abendzeitung, which Kind and Hell published collectively since 1817, in which Böttiger also took part.
All these writers did not go beyond their pleasant mediocrities in their views and gifts. Most of them were born in Dresden, they were connected with each other manifold, and formed a closed row. The transfer of a man like Tieck to Dresden was an important event for her; her position had to change as soon as she received a large had poetic authority beside him. Frictions could not fail. In any case, it was a time when political excitement was starting to add excessive importance to literary party struggles, personalities, and local interests.
Contrary to those who called themselves his friends and followers, how could he have come to terms with those who were neither one nor the other, and occasionally knew how to combine the modern hauntings with the old rationalism? As in earlier years, he found reason enough to repeatedly speak of Goethe and Shakspeare as the great patterns of poetry. It aroused an uncomfortable feeling on that side when he read masterpieces, wrote and spoke about them, and called the everyday, flat, and mediocre by the right name, or overlooked altogether. On the other hand, one heard the literary sigh of sorrow, that Kotzebue was no longer allowed to cry when Iffland’s earnestness was touched, both were scolded in common, and the German originals waved away to admire Holberg’s nuddles and incomprehensible Britons and Spaniards.
Nevertheless, both parts were bearable together. Böttiger was a polite and good-natured man to live with. An agreement was also reached with the others to the extent that since 1820 Tieck had written dramatic reviews for the Abendzeitung.
On the other hand, some younger poets, who with the warmest zeal paid tribute to romanticism, joined in personal friendship, and made him the center of their own circle. First, Ernst Otto von der Malsburg, a young man who, quite filled with the idea of moof the most recent poetry, which had been inspired by Schlegel to study Spanish poetry and to translate Calderon’s. With luck he delivered a sequel to the Spanish theater; she appeared since 1817. The atmosphere of Spanish chivalry and piety corresponded to his character and talents, and in his lyric poetry he reproduced with sensation what he had received there. He was not original or creative, yet warm, heartfelt, exuberant. Personally, he was amiable, loyal, and devoted as a friend, easy-going, cheerful, and full of good-natured humor as a partner. To his knowledge of the Spanish, Tieck placed great value, and he gave preference to his translation of the Calderon before the Griesians. For both, the study of Spanish literature was a point of agreement. Both were lovers and collectors of old prints, and jokingly arranged that the first dying man should leave his Spanish library as an inheritance to the survivor. Malsburg’s untimely death made this joke too serious. In 1817 he came to Dresden as a Kurhessian chargé d’affaires, where he spent the last years of his life with some interruptions.
macrolide norfloxacin nicotinate
Immediately years, but as a writer older and better known, was the Count Heinrich Loeben, who had written under the name Isidorus Orientalis many things in verse and prose. In addition to Fouqué he was the most versatile representative of the latest romanticism. Through his first novel “Guido” a strange and confused reverberation of Novalis’ “Ofterdingen” drew. To the medieval chivalry came an unclear and self-struggling meaning, which often played with parables, and Catholic inclinations. Soon he was the devout pilgrim, now an erring knight or a plaintive shepherd. The carbuncle, the hyacinth and narcisse, all the flowers and gems of the Spanish poets went through his hand. He produced with uncommon ease. His moving verse was the expression of a restless and over-excited imagination. In severe illnesses and prolonged ailments, these soul forces seemed to increase at the expense of health.
Befriended by both, Karl Förster, a teacher at the Caddesian Dresden, was an open, simple and soft nature. Equipped with versatile erudition, he was particularly connoisseur of Italian literature and art. His translations of Petrarch and Tasso, like his own poems, showed a not inconsiderable talent for form.
To them came Count F. Kalkreuth, son of Field Marshal; he too had written many things in a romantic tone; and finally Tieck’s older friend, Wilhelm von Schiitz, who, as a zealous follower of F. Schlegel, still surpassed the exuberance of the younger romantics.
These formed the closer circle that gathered around him without Tieck’s action. All were younger men, gifted, enthusiastic for a peculiar conception of poetry, as whose masters they recognized Tieck. Pure devotion and sincere admiration of his poetry brought them to meet him. Through the simplicity and perfection of his training, which made it impossible for him to exert any mental pressure on others, through the fine manners and sociable form that was his nature, they were bound. They themselves needed a center, a name to which they joined; so they raised Tieck on the shield and called him their master. In his medieval language, Loeben described him as his knight and loyal squire. Won it for the opponents, as if Tieck really wanted to elevate himself to a sectarian body, only those who did not know him could judge so. Unperturbed by the interpretations of this relationship, he allowed what happened by himself to happen. He did not agree with his friends in all or the most important points, nor did he misjudge their one-sidednesses and weaknesses, but he was no less in their loyalty and amiable devotion. Unspent, a literary society formed, which gathered regularly, in which one read their own or foreign poetry and judged by friendly criticism.
To the friends, who lived in Dresden, came temporarily also foreign, which brought change and some new suggestion. After a long separation, Tieck saw in 1820 his sister, now Frau von Knorring, who accompanied one of her sons from Livonia to Heidelberg. She was still busy with poetry and literature. Her poems and dramas bore the character of modern colorful romance, which enchanted fairy-tale fabrics into resounding Romanesque verses. His brother Friedrich, who after a restless wandering life in Switzerland, had lived in Carrara for a long time, and was now employed by the Academy of Arts in Berlin, came. In the summer of 1822 Jean Paul appeared, with whom Tieck spent happy days. In the beginning, a certain amount of cool restraint and partiality had been stored between the two; they might remember that, despite all recognition, they had not always judged each other well. But finally the ice was broken; openly and impartially they discussed their poetry and their mutual position, and to Jean Paul’s great delight Tieck read the “Attila Schmelzle”.
macrolide norfloxacin nicotinate
Wilhelm Müller, who was friends with Loeben, also joined the circle of friends. His “Müller- and Waldhornistlieder” were generally accepted; a deep impression soon made the “Greek songs”. Communicating with him was easy. He was healthy, fresh, true, far from all crickets, and highly gifted for simple song poetry. When he once communicated to Tieck a dramatic experiment, and he explained to him that the drama was not his profession, he rejected his poetry without sensitivity and with full recognition of the reasons given, and since then has kept himself from this species. Ludwig Robert and Holtei also came to Dresden for a time.
One of the strangest appearances came from another side, which made a surprising impression on Tieck. In the autumn of 1822, among many literary first works sent to him, he received a manuscript which, in terms of its size and weight, outwardly stood out against the others. It was a tragedy, titled “Theodor von Gothland”. The author’s name was Grabbe, and asked for Tieck’s judicial verdict. At first glance, he recognized the great, but raw and savage power. There was nothing of feebleness, nothing of poetic coquetry, it was the work of an untamed, darkly conscious talent. The author had studied and absorbed Shakspeare, but his poetic fury led him far beyond anything the older geniuses had allowed themselves. The softness of the prevailing taste strengthened him in his natural direction. There was no lack of tragic moments and thoughts, but much was hard, bizarre, even bloody and horrible. With the rage of passion that tore itself, mated sometimes a disgusting cynicism; his strength changed into a convulsive rage, into an unpoetic materialism. So only a great talent and an unhappy person could present themselves. Full of sympathy, Tieck pronounced himself in a letter in this sense, and at once the poet replied by sending a second play. This time it was a comedy.
Tieck was right. An unhappy man had written this; it was a talent that threatened to fail at the moment of discontinuation. Grabbe studied at that time in Berlin. In Detmold, where his father was a prison official, he received his first training under oppressive circumstances. But his equipment characterized him; he was expected to receive something important from him, and took care of him. In various ways they sought to work on him and make it usable. For a time he was to become a preacher, then an archivist and a diplomat. He amassed masses of opposite and confused knowledge that ultimately disgusted him and disguised him from scholarly studies. But he sensed something of the poet in him, and soon the feeling in him seemed to gain the upper hand that he least deserved the power in which he was proud. He showed himself leaping and irritable, whimsical, haughty, and full of passion. Finally he went to Leipzig and Berlin to study the rights; Here he completed his earlier begun poetry.
Now he was looking for some means of maintenance. In his predilection for the drama, he also believed he had a profession for his portrayal; he decided to become an actor. He thought he was equipped with the greatest natural resources; his imagination reminded him that he had to make a tremendous impression on stage. Inzwi he had returned to Leipzig, from where he informed Tieck of his wishes and intentions in March 1823. He described his irresistible passion for the theater; he has a voice that is capable of all modulations; his talent is the most versatile, Hamlet, Lear and Falstaff are able to portray him. He implored him to mediate his employment at the dresdener stage, thereby at the same time wresting him from an oppressive situation. By these announcements Tieck was stretched to the highest.