The latest research by 8 units including Southern University of Science and Technology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Wuhan Zhongnan Hospital, and Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital found that susceptibility to new coronary pneumonia is related to blood type.
Through the survey and statistics of a large number of patients, it is found that the infection rate and mortality rate of new coronary pneumonia with blood type O are significantly lower than those of other blood types, while the infection rate and mortality rate of blood type A are among the top.
In fact, there have been previous studies on blood type and susceptibility to other coronaviruses. The study found that compared with other blood types, medical staff with blood type O have a lower probability of infection.
But why does coronavirus prefer type A blood? This starts with the ABO blood type classification.
Blood is the source of life, and human beings have longed for blood since ancient times (especially in the West). In the arena of ancient Rome, the audience was eager to drink the blood of the defeated, and believed that this would gain the courage and strength of the gladiator.
Renaissance doctors seem to have found the correct use of blood. They put blood into the patient’s vein, believing that this is a cure for all diseases. But until more than 100 years ago, blood transfusion was an out-and-out “homicide” behavior, because the transfused person would have symptoms of fever, pain, soy sauce urine, and bizarre death.
What is even more confusing is that while blood transfusion is life-threatening, the symptoms of a few patients have also been effectively relieved. Why does the same blood have such disparate effects on different people? In 1900, the famous Austrian medical scientist and physiologist Karl Landsteiner discovered the human ABO blood group system.
Landsteiner mixed the blood samples of different people and found that some people’s blood will clump after mixing. This is due to different blood types and different proteins called “antigens” on the surface of red blood cells: type A red blood cells have A antigen on the surface Type B red blood cells have B antigen on the surface; AB type red blood cells have A antigen and B antigen on the surface; Type O red blood cells have no two antigens on the surface. Antigen is the “identity card” issued by the human body to red blood cells, and human immune cells recognize their own cells by recognizing the “antigen” on the surface of red blood cells. Type B blood has its own anti-A antibody. When the A antibody in type B blood “touches” the A antigen, it will “violently beat” this foreign red blood cell. Therefore, use type B blood plasma and type A blood in Landsteiner In the red blood cell mixing experiment, the blood still clots.
In the same way, the red blood cells of type B blood enter into type A blood in the same way, because type A blood also carries anti-B antibodies. There are no two antibodies for AB blood. Type O blood, which has nothing, has anti-A antibodies and anti-B antibodies.
In the opening study, the high susceptibility of blood type A (and the delisted blood type AB) to COVID-19 may be due to the presence of anti-blood group antibodies in the blood, especially anti-A antibodies.
Not only the coronavirus, but other viruses also have unique preferences for blood types.
It is well known that the culprit of hepatitis B is the HBV virus. In the early years, studies have analyzed the blood type ratio of hepatitis B patients and found that the hepatitis B prevalence of blood type B and AB blood is slightly higher than other blood types.
In addition to HBV virus, norovirus may also be “blood group control.” Norovirus is a family member of the Caliciviridae family. Due to its highly contagious nature, noroviruses in the United States cause 19 million to 21 million infections each year, but not everyone is susceptible to norovirus. Some researchers have conducted experimental studies on the “hobby” of norovirus and believe that the B antigen may be the receptor of the GII.12 norovirus Pune strain, so individuals with blood type B and AB blood with B antigen are more likely Infected with GII.12 Norovirus.
Different noroviruses have different hobbies. The prototype Norwalk virus (GI.1 type) prefers type A and type O secretory individuals, while type O non-secretory individuals are almost immune. But what are secreted and non-secreted types?
ABO blood type is not the only classification method in blood type classification. Under the control of genes E and e, in the ABO blood type, there are non-secretory and secretory types. The secretions (saliva, semen, gastric juice, etc.) of individuals with secretory blood types can be used to determine their blood types, not secretory blood types The individual’s “confidentiality” work is in place and hardly secretes blood type substances into the secretions. Therefore, in addition to blood, it is impossible to determine the blood type of non-secreted blood types.
In addition to secretory blood types, there are more human blood types.
With such a complicated blood type classification system, it is not precise enough to use ABO blood type classification to determine the virus’s preferred blood type.
Maybe the new crown pneumonia virus really has a unique blood type, just like humans once believed that blood has the power to heal, and we need to continue to explore to enter the “new world” of medicine.