In order to expand the territory, human beings have never stopped wars for thousands of years: the lions of the animal kingdom are fighting for territory at all costs. The same goes for plants. In order to expand their territory, they use various “tactics” to stage a battle without gunpowder. Let’s take a look at how these “plant kings” have made their own tricks to “dominate the world”.
“Double-click on land and air”·Canada Solidago dominates
There was once a famous plant called Solidago canadensis. The plant is 1.5 to 3 meters high. It has strong fecundity and rapid spread. It competes with the surrounding plants for sunshine, fertilizer, and territory. It can be described as “I will kill a hundred flowers after blooming.” This kind of flower can be seen in river beaches, wastelands, both sides of roads, empty homesteads and other places. The sea of flowers rolls like a flame crossing the border, and the array is as dense as a battlefield. It poses a serious threat to biodiversity and is called an “ecological killer.” “Overlord Flower.
So, what is the secret weapon that allowed Canada to sweep across the army and dominate the world?
It turned out that the Canadian Goldenrod’s “land-air double-tap tactics” made it utterly unstoppable. Solidago canadianensis is native to North America, also known as Solidago canadensis. It was first introduced to my country in the 1930s. It was originally planted in Shanghai. It is a perennial herbaceous plant of the Compositae family. It was originally only planted in the garden and has a strong competition for sunlight and nutrients , The power of moisture. Unexpectedly, the “ambitious” Solidago canadensis was unwilling to stay at the small door forever. It yearned for a broader sky from nature, so it used wind, birds and other “air forces” to bring the seeds it produced in all directions. Not only do they have the “military power” of more than 20,000 seeds per plant, they also engage in root propagation, forming new plants on the roots, woven into a super powerful reproduction network, wherever they go, other crops and weeds do not fight against themselves. If you lose, all will die.
Scientists have investigated that the roots of Solidago canadensis secrete some substances, which can inhibit the growth of sugar maple and other plant seedlings, and also inhibit the germination of herbs including itself. In Denmark, studies have shown that acetylene gas still exists in its root system, and acetylene gas is also a killer that inhibits the growth of other species. It is precisely with the power of a two-headed army and air force that Canada Goldenrod has become unscrupulous.
“Looking for salaries and tasting courage”·The expansion of ragweed
Ambrosia ragweed, also known as ragweed ragweed and American wormwood, is a wild vicious weed from North America. It invaded my country in the 1930s and is one of the ten most aggressive weeds announced by the Ministry of Agriculture. It has a strong “exclusive” nature. , Where it grows, it is difficult for other plants to survive.
In order to “unify the country”, ragweed produces a peculiar seed that can bear the burden of humiliation, and when the time is right, it will regenerate and harm the rivers and lakes.
The lifespan of willow seeds is extremely short. They can germinate only within 12 hours after maturation. The lifespan of poplar seeds is generally not more than a few weeks. The lifespan of most crop seeds is only 1 to 3 years under normal storage conditions. But the seed of ragweed is different. It has tenacious vitality, and it will not be “minimized” for 30-40 years.
Each plant of ragweed bears at least tens of thousands of seeds, which can be spread everywhere with the wind, with birds, with the soles of people’s shoes or currents, and vehicles. They all have hooks and can be attached to people’s clothes or sack to travel at will. Among the disseminated seeds, about 70% of the seeds germinate and grow when the moisture, soil, and temperature are appropriate, and 30% of the seeds are temporarily sleeping. They feel that they are “eccentric” to moisture, soil, and temperature. indignation. With these stubborn seeds, how can you not dominate the arena?
Dandelion uses “East Wind” to grab territory
The little dandelion is a model of territorial expansion. After the dandelion seeds mature, they must leave the plant and take root and germinate elsewhere. However, they are single and weak, have no feet or legs, and have no artificial planting. How can they seize the ground and take root? Don’t worry, Dandelion is already familiar with Zhuge Liang’s tactics of “borrowing the east wind” to burn Cao Ying. Through the wind, his children and grandchildren can multiply everywhere.
Dandelion knows that it is only a weak plant among herbaceous plants, so it produces the fruit as “achene”, which is small and light, easy to spread, and then grows some parachute-like crests from the top, which is more convenient for sailing. In this way, after the seeds mature, they fly far away when the wind blows. When these fruits fall to the ground and meet suitable conditions for germination, they will immediately sprout and grow into new dandelions.
Similarly, plants that “borrow the east wind” include willow, cotton, and zelkova. Their seeds are hairy and can fly far away in the wind. However, the seeds of plants such as elm trees and maple trees are hairless and cannot be scattered with the wind. However, in order to seize the country, they are very “cunning”. They grow their fruits with small horns like “wings” and use the wind to “glide. ” Therefore, they can also slide very far to breed.
Bidens Immigration Moves “Animal Soldiers”
Plants possess high IQ survival wisdom. Plants such as dandelions use the wind to spread tiny seeds to compete for territories, so how do plants whose seeds cannot be blown away by a strong wind “migrate”? Don’t worry, they have their own tactics. If you can’t rely on the east wind, then move their troops! What soldiers to move? Of course it is an active soldier, an animal soldier!
In late autumn, if you go for an outing in the woods in the wild, you will find that there are many weed fruits or seeds on your clothes and socks. These small things are difficult to remove even if you beat them with your hands or brush. Who are they? Why are they attached to us so affectionately? It turns out that they are the fruits of high “IQ” plants such as cocklebur, bidens, pigs, and tribulus. There are some hooks and thorns on the fruits of plants such as cocklebur and bidens. As long as you get close to them, they will hook firmly to you or the animal. When you carry them around unintentionally, they have already taken root in those places without knowing it!
What about seeds without hooks and thorns? Smart plants have their own solutions. The wild fruits in the forest, such as mountain sandalwood, grapes, cherries, pears, apples and other fleshy plants have a coup. They grow brilliant and delicious fruits that attract people and animals to taste. After the seeds of these plants are swallowed by animals, they are indigestible in the animal’s gastrointestinal tract. They will be excreted with animal feces and can germinate as long as they are not broken. In this way, after wild fruits are swallowed by animals and then excreted with feces, these seeds have found a new destination.
In addition, the fruits of some wild plants and cultivated plants mature at the same time, and their survival methods are even more scheming. They are spread by human sowing and harvesting. For example, the fruit of barnyardgrass matures at the same time as rice, and it spreads with the planting and harvest of rice. It is a famous weed in rice cultivation.