Literature shaped the Russian political and cultural welcome, Lenin (Vladimir Ilyich Lenin) is born in Sri Lanka. Under the tsar dictatorship, it is difficult to publish publicly in political words. Those bold critics will be put in prison until they “recover”, in other words, until they publicly reclaim their own political views. But in contrast, the novel and the poem are treated much more modestly, even though not every case.
Of course, the most critical review officer is the tsar emperor. In Pushkin, for example, “the father of the people” Nicholas I asked Pushkin to most of the works before the printing by their own review. It is precisely because of this, some of these works are forbidden to issue, the other part is postponed, and the most subversive text works are often frightened by Pushkin himself destroyed, he worried that his home will encounter raids. Today we have never been able to know what the written sentences were written.
In spite of this, it is far from the other European countries to be able to penetrate into the Russian novels in a different way or in different ways. In terms of politicized literary and literary criticism, the Russian intellectuals have a lot of choices. Critics Vissarion Belinsky and Nikolai Gogol, a dramatist and novelist, have had a sharp clash, and the latter’s satirical novel “Dead Soul” (Dead Souls) so that the whole country was encouraged, even taken to the illiterate read aloud.
However, the final success has become a surrender of Gogol. He began to give up in the follow-up works, depicting those “stinky” farmers, to ignorant illiteracy to defend. He wrote in the preamble to the second edition of the Dead Soul: “Many parts of the book are wrong and do not match what is happening on the land of Russia, and I sincerely invite my dear readers to correct I’ll ask you to do that.
Under the rage of Belinsky (Belinsky) in 1847 openly broke with him. Belinsky widely circulated “to a letter to the Gogh” Let the recipients sleep at night:
I also have an understanding of the Russian public. But at the moment I realized that your books could have a negative impact on the government and the censorship, not the public. At that time, St. Petersburg rumors that the government intends to publish thousands of your “book with friends”, but also at very low prices in the market for sale, my friends are all depressed. Then I told them that the book was not going to be successful, and it would soon be forgotten. In fact it seems that it is not so much to remember the book, remember to write about the article because of it. Yes, the Russians have intuition and instincts that are not yet complete but deeply rooted in truth.
Later days, the critics of the vicious intensified, for all they think works are not qualified novelists and playwrights are relentless.
This is the growth of Lenin during the Russian intellectual atmosphere. His father was a conservative who had received higher education, and was a local inspector, who was revered as a educator. Shakespeare, Goethe and Pushkin’s words were repeatedly read on the weekend’s home. Such a Uriyanov family is hard to escape from the elegant culture. Thus, such a Ulyanov (“Lenin” is a pseudonym for him to avoid the examination of the dictatorship.) It is almost impossible for the family to be influenced by the culture of elegance.
Pushkin’s portrait of 1872
Lenin was hooked on Latin in high school, and the class teacher even wanted him to be a linguist and a Latin expert. Although later did not do so, but Lenin’s enthusiasm for Latin, the love of classical literature has never disappeared. He read the original works of Virgil, Ovid, Heraeus and Uvigny’s Latin, and even the Romanian senate speech speech also studied, and in 20 years of exile career through Goethe , Again and again to revisit “Faust” (Faust).
Lenin’s rich classical literature was well used to lead the October Revolution of 1917. In April of that year, he parted with the Russian Social Democratic Party, with a series of radical articles calling for the launching of the socialist revolution in Russia. Although the comrades who had been close to him began to publicly condemn the attack, but Lenin did not fear, witfully quoted Goethe’s “Faust” in the devil Murphy’s words counterattack: “My friend, the theory has always been gray But the tree of life is evergreen.
Russian literature has always been unclear with political disputes, which Lenin is more aware than most people. Even those who most often advocate “irrelevant politics”, will find themselves difficult to disguise the current national state of contempt. Oblomov’s novel “Ivan Goncharov” is an excellent example. This book vividly depicts the dullness, laziness and emptiness of Oberomov as the landlord, Lenin liked it very much. The Russian dictionary even joined a new word: oblomovism, which means indulging in idiot and lazy Oberomov style, dedicated to denouncing the landlords who helped the dictatorship for a long time. Lenin then further stated that the ills were not confined to the upper classes but also to most of the dictatorships of the dictatorship and spread down, even the Communist officials were not immune, and that the mirror was lifted by Goncharov The truth of the Russian society. Lenin in the war with the opponent, often compared to each other in the Russian novels who are always unhappy little people.
Russian writers disagree (of course, they are not the only group facing such problems) is the way to overthrow the existing regime. Pushkin had publicly supported the December party uprising in 1825 to prevent the Nicholas I’s throne’s succession. Gogol in the abandonment of the position before the spicy irony serf conservative suppression of the situation. Turgenev was dissatisfied with the reign of the tsar, especially for the nihilists who advocated terror. Dostoevsky was quite interested in anarchy of terrorism, but after the terrorist murder in St. Petersburg and strongly opposed to this trend. Tolstoy’s attack on Russian despotism makes Lenin quite appreciated, but his Christian and negative anti-war doctrine are opposite to Lenin’s ambition. Lenin had questioned why a genius writer could become a revolutionary and a conservative at the same time? He also analyzed the contradictions of Tolstoy’s work in many articles. In the eyes of Lenin, Tolstoy can always make a clear diagnosis, his novel always conscious and expressed the economic fluctuations of the peasant groups and collective anger, but can not find the cure recipe. He does not try to conceive a revolutionary future, but hopes for a simple comfort in utopian style. In the text of the “Russian Revolution – Tolstoy”, Lenin wrote: “Tolstoy’s thinking in the contradictions of thinking is no accident, but reflects the 19th century, one-third of the time the Russian people Life of the contradictory environment. “For this reason, Tolstoy’s contradiction can be regarded as an effective guide to Lenin’s political analysis.
At the same time, Lenin is very disgusted with Dostoevsky’s “cult of injustice”, although the power of his writing is undeniable. Lenin’s view of literature has never risen to the national policy level. August 2, 1918, that is, a year after the revolution, the Soviet Union intends to build a monument for the writer, “News” called the national readers to vote for the writers. The final result was Dostoevsky’s second, behind Tolstoy. In November of that year, a monument built by the Soviet government was unveiled in Moscow, and the symbolic poet Vyacheslav Ivanov sent a congratulatory message.
All in all, for Lenin (and even for all radicals and revolutionaries), the most influential writer was Nikolay Chernyshevsky. Chernyshevsky is the son of a priest and a materialist philosopher and a socialist. Because of political beliefs imprisoned in St. Petersburg’s Pitt Paul fortress, he finished the famous novel “What to do?” “(What Is to Be Done?). “How to do? “Quickly became the younger generation of the” Bible “, at the same time, this book was from the prison was smuggled out more mysterious. It was this book that made Lenin more aggressive before he met Marx (who had had communication with Chernyshevsky). In order to pay tribute to the predecessors of the populist, Lenin deliberately named his 1902 first important political works as “how to do?” “(What Is to Be Done?).
Tolstoy and daughter Masha
The great success of Chernyshevsky was greatly annoyed by other well-known writers, especially Turgenev, who had a vicious attack on the book. But this kind of anger has been the radical critics Dobo Luobo Fu (Dobrolyubov) and Pisarev (Pisarev) tit for tat against. The grumpy Turgenev once met Chernyshevsky in public, and he roared and said, “You are a snake! Dumbledore is a rattlesnake!”
What is a novel that raises such a large-scale controversy? In the past 50 years, I have tried three times to read every page, but each attempt ended in failure. It is not a typical Russian literary works, but only a specific period of special products. There is no doubt that it is extremely radical on every issue, for how to fight, how to draw the enemy, how to survive under specific rules have unique insights on gender equality, male and female sexual relations even more so.
Nladok (Vladimir Nabokov) on the Chernyshevsky hate, but found it difficult to ignore each other. He spent 50 pages in his own novel, “The Gift,” and spent 50 pages attacking ridicule Chernyshevsky, but at the same time admitting that “a handful of young writers on the grass, “Tolstoy and Turgenev even privately call him a ‘buggy’ s gentleman ‘, and there is nothing to pick up his rush.
Their mockery is partly due to jealousy, because the person they despise is particularly popular among young people; the other is also derived from deep-rooted political hostility, with Turgenev as an example of his attempt to launch a revolution to destroy existing land ownership And the land assigned to the farmer’s writers is very hostile.
Between 1905 and 1917, the exiled Lenin often made a great temper to the young people who came to visit the Bolsheviks. These young people often joke with the books of the case of the case, that is simply worthless reading. But in Lenin’s view, it is because they are too young and can not understand the depth and vision of the work. They have to wait until the age of 40 to understand that the philosophy of Chernyshevsky is derived from many simple facts: we humans originate from the apes, not Adam and Eve; life is a too short physiological process, so need to let each one People enjoy happiness. But it is almost impossible to achieve in this world full of greed, hatred, war, selfishness and class division. It is also because of this, a thorough social revolution is more necessary. However, when the young people climbing the Swiss peaks with Lenin to grow to 40 years old, the revolution has already occurred. Today, most of the readers of Chernyshevsky are historians who study the history of Lenin’s thought. The party’s progressive party turned to Mayakovsky, but Lenin remained unchanged.
Rooted in Lenin’s innerism as a barrier, so that he even face the field of art literature, a variety of exciting new progress is also indifferent. Lenin found himself hard to adapt to modernism in Russia and elsewhere. Art pioneers (Mayakovsky and constituentists) are always not on the appetite.
Poets and artists continue to tell Lenin that they love Pushkin and Lemontov and are also active activists who try to challenge the old art form and create new and unique new products that are more in line with the Bolshevism and revolution Age. But all this effort is in vain for Lenin. He is not willing to change. Other people can write and draw any of their favorite works, but why should he be forced to express it? But rather a lot of colleagues in Lenin, more sympathetic to the new trend.
Drama “Faust’s Curse”, Christopher Purvis (Christopher Purves) plays the devil Muffies, Peter Hall (Peter Hoare) as Faust
Bukharin, Lunacharsky, Krupskaya and Kollontai are clear to him, and to some extent Trotsky knows : The spark of revolution opens a new horizon for mankind. Of course, the avant-garde also has internal conflicts, hesitations and contradictions, and their supporters within the government Anatoly Lunacharsky (Anatoly Lunacharsky), and Lenin’s wife Nadia Kruppskaya ( Nadya Krupskaya) in the same department, namely the People’s Education Board. The paper crisis during the civil war triggered a heated dispute. Should they issue a leaflet or a new poem for the Indiana Yakovsky? Lenin strongly supported the former, and Luna Charsky thought that Mayakovsky’s poetry would have been much more useful, and this time he won.
Lenin is quite hostile to any concept of “proletarian literature and art,” especially in a country where the cultural level is not high, he insists that the pinnacle of bourgeois culture (and their ancient predecessors) Dull experience formula goes beyond. After the death of Lenin, the so-called “socialist realism” introduced in those old days finally proved that in the field of literature and art, shortcuts would not work.