With the arrival of the scorching summer, a large number of seasonal fruits have been listed one after another, and a fruit feast began to be staged in China. Faced with fruits that used to be more expensive but now lower their “statures”, everyone cheered “Finally Free Fruits” and rushed to buy early adopters. Many of them had problems, such as diarrhea, dizziness, stomach pain, and liquidity. Nosebleeds and so on. So, how to eat fruit in summer? What should patients with chronic diseases pay attention to when eating fruits?
Chinese people don’t eat enough fruit
The “2016 China National Fruit and Vegetable Attention Data” shows that the average daily consumption of fruits by urban and rural residents in China is 40.7 grams, which is not as big as an apple, and the “Chinese Residents’ Balanced Diet Guide (2016)” recommends 200-400 daily intake Grams of fruit. It can be seen that Chinese people’s intake of fruits is far from enough.
You might think it’s no big deal not to like fruit. However, a recent study on Chinese people eating fruits published in the New England Journal of Medicine showed that 560,000 people in China die of cardiovascular disease because they do not eat fruits every year. The study followed up 450,000 healthy Chinese people and found that people who eat fruit every day not only have lower blood pressure and blood sugar, but also fewer people with cardiovascular disease. Compared with those who did not eat fruit or seldom ate fruit, cardiovascular deaths fell by 40%, and deaths from coronary heart disease fell by 34%. Studies estimate that 16% of cardiovascular deaths are caused by not eating fruits every day. Based on this estimate, 560,000 people die of cardiovascular disease due to not eating fruits each year, and 200,000 of them die before the age of 70.
The results of this study sounded the alarm for those of us whose per capita intake of fruits and vegetables has not reached the ideal level. So, what is the relationship between fruit and health? Ma Guansheng, a professor in the Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, Peking University School of Public Health, introduced that fruits have the following effects-
prevent cancer: fruits contain trace components that can prevent cancer, including vitamins and minerals that have antioxidant functions, namely β-carotene , Vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, etc., other carotenoids (such as rutin, lycopene and α-carotene) and folic acid also have antioxidant effects or other possible anti-carcinogenic effects or both. These nutrients can inhibit or even prevent the growth and proliferation of tumor cells to a certain extent, and can also prevent some chemical substances from transforming into biologically active carcinogens in the body. The World Cancer Research Foundation and the American Cancer Institute have summarized research materials from countries around the world and believe that there is sufficient evidence that fruits can reduce the risk of cancers in the mouth, pharynx, lung, stomach, colon, and rectum, and may reduce the pancreas, breast, and bladder , Liver and prostate cancer.
Prevent cardiovascular disease: Low-density lipoprotein (bad cholesterol) is easy to deposit on the blood vessel wall, forming atheromatous plaque, destroying blood vessel health. The antioxidants contained in fruits and vitamins (especially folic acid) that can affect blood homocysteine levels can reduce the oxidation of cholesterol in arteries and effectively protect vascular endothelial cells from damage caused by low-density lipoproteins, and It has a protective effect on cardiomyocytes. In addition, the large amount of dietary fiber in fruits can “wrap” cholesterol, thereby reducing the absorption of cholesterol and lowering the level of human plasma cholesterol.
Preventing obesity and type 2 diabetes: Professor Jaap Seidell, a well-known obesity expert in the Netherlands, pointed out that in most parts of the world, eating foods with high energy and low nutritional value is the main factor that increases the risk of obesity and related chronic diseases. Fruits are rich in potassium ions, cellulose, folic acid, antioxidants and a variety of biologically active compounds, but low in sodium, fat and calories. This has positive significance for preventing obesity and chronic diseases related to overweight. Studies have shown that eating more fruits and vegetables properly can reduce the incidence of type 2 diabetes, which is related to its rich dietary fiber. Because dietary fiber can reduce blood sugar response after meals.
Enhance disease resistance and anti-aging ability: fruits have a certain ability to scavenge oxygen free radicals, which can reduce the oxidative damage caused by oxygen free radicals to the body; fruits can also protect the body from oxidative damage by increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes; Fruits can inhibit the formation of lipid peroxidation products of malondialdehyde and ester fuscin, block the lipid peroxidation chain reaction, reduce membrane lipid peroxidation damage, and enhance the body’s disease resistance and anti-aging ability.
Eat fruit in summer, first divide “cold” and “hot”
In the hot summer days, the variety of fresh fruits is dizzying. So many people eat fruits with their stomachs open, thinking that they are rich in nutrients and can lose weight. Shen Yanying, deputy dean of Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, reminded everyone that eating too much fruit or the wrong way to eat it is also harmful to the body and may even cause “fruit disease.” For example, eating watermelon is prone to intestinal diseases such as anorexia and diarrhea; eating large amounts of lychee can easily cause sudden hypoglycemia, commonly known as “lychee disease.” So, how can fruits be eaten to achieve the effect of health preservation?
1. Divide “cold” and “heat” first.
From the perspective of TCM nutrition, fruits are divided into cold and hot. If your body is not suitable for eating cold or hot fruits, if you eat them improperly or overeat, you will Cause serious negative effects on the body. According to Dr. Li Changping from the Nutrition Department of Beijing Hospital, summer fruits are mostly cold, such as pears, apples and various melons. Generally speaking, people with very hot physique have a strong metabolism in summer, the sympathetic nerve is dominant, and they sweat a lot. They often have flushed complexion, dry mouth, irritability, and constipation. They can eat more cold fruits. People with deficiency-cold physique have a low basal metabolic rate, produce less heat in the body, their limbs are cold even in summer, their complexion is whiter than ordinary people, and they are rarely thirsty and don’t like to touch cold things. Therefore, warm fruits are undoubtedly good for these people. Common warm and hot fruits include litchi, longan, apricot and so on. Fruits between cold and hot are peaceful, such as grapes, pineapples, mangos, olives, ginkgo, plums, etc. People of different physiques can eat them.
It should be noted that in summer, you must not be greedy for cold when eating fruits, otherwise it will slow down the gastrointestinal motility and cause indigestion, especially those with cold stomach or mild gastritis.
2. It is advisable to eat 200-400 grams of fruit every day
Zhao Xia, deputy chief nutritionist at Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, pointed out that although fruits are good, most fruits have high dietary fiber and sugar content. Eating too much can cause stomach pain, bloating, and excessive weight, so intake should not be too high. Big. According to the “Dietary Guidelines for Chinese Residents (2016)”, adults should eat 200 to 400 grams of fruit per day. The amount mentioned here refers to the weight of the pulp that is eaten, excluding the peel, seed, and pit. Take apples as an example. A Fuji apple weighs about 250 grams, and 200 grams is left after removing the core. Therefore, 400 grams a day is roughly equivalent to eating two apples. When eating fruits, you should also pay attention to diversity. For example, if you eat an apple, then eat some strawberries, oranges, etc., to ensure that you eat enough and enrich your nutrition.
3. different times to eat different considerations
regarding when to eat fruit should be the question, many people feel confused. Fan Zhihong, an associate professor in the Department of Food Safety of China Agricultural University, pointed out that as long as the total energy of the food does not exceed the standard and the gastrointestinal condition is relatively good, it can be eaten anytime.
You can eat fruits that are not particularly sour before meals. At this time, eating fruits is good for filling the stomach, creating a feeling of fullness, reducing the amount of food for the next meal, which is most beneficial for weight control. It’s okay to eat fruit during meals, use it as a raw material for dishes, or eat a small amount as a dessert after a meal, but if you use fruit instead of some vegetables, because fruits have higher energy than vegetables, you need to pay attention to controlling the total amount of the meal. Energy intake. Whether or not to eat fruit two hours after a meal can be determined according to personal feelings. If the food intake is already large during the meal and the stomach is full, you can eat fruit later; if you do not eat too much during the meal, it is not greasy If you feel that your stomach can hold more food, you might as well eat fruit at that time.
A particular issue to consider is the temperature of the fruit. If you eat a lot of greasy food, and then eat a lot of cold fruits, the blood vessels in the stomach will be cold and contracted. For more sensitive people, it may affect digestion and absorption, and even cause stomach discomfort. Therefore, eating fruits after meals should be at room temperature.
4. change the color of fruit
Beijing Chaoyang Hospital dietitian new song is to remind you to eat the fruit but also the color. Orange fruits such as lemons, mangos, oranges, papaya, persimmons, pineapples, and oranges all contain natural antioxidant β-carotene, which can improve the body’s immune function, and the orange pigment contained in it also has anti-cancer effects; as a heart The protective factors of vitamin C and folic acid, which are commonly found in green leafy vegetables, are also abundant in yellow fruits.
Red fruits such as tomatoes and pomegranates are rich in carotenoids, which can scavenge free radicals, inhibit the formation of cancer cells, and improve human immunity. Most of the calories in red fruits are low. Regular eating can make you healthy and light.
Purple-black fruits such as grapes, blackberries, blueberries and plums contain proanthocyanidins that can relieve eye fatigue. This ingredient can also enhance blood vessel elasticity and prevent cholesterol accumulation. It is the best ingredient for preventing cancer and arteriosclerosis. In addition, the content of potassium, magnesium, calcium and other minerals in purple-black fruits is also higher than that of ordinary fruits. These ions are mostly present in the fruits in the form of organic acid salts, which play a vital role in maintaining the body’s ion balance.
Green fruits such as green apples contain lutein or zeaxanthin, and their antioxidant effects can protect the retina from damage and protect eyesight.
The juice is not the ideal choice
nowadays a lot of people like to drink fruit juice into juice, as well as young people like to buy bottled juice in a store. So, is the nutritional effect of drinking fruit juice the same as eating fruit? The answer given by Ding Lili, the deputy director of the Nutrition Department of Beijing Hospital, is no. She pointed out that compared with fresh fruit, the original dietary fiber in the fruit will be lost during the process of making fruit juice. The reason is that in the process of juicing , The insoluble dietary fiber in the fruit will remain in the squeezed residue. In addition, in the process of squeezing juice, the high-speed rotating blade will destroy most of the fruit and vegetable cells, and the nutrients such as potassium and anthocyanins will be dissolved in the juice and be oxidized.
Secondly, the fruit juices that people buy on the market basically have added sugar, which has relatively high sugar content, which is not good for human health. In general, a 225 ml bottle of fruit juice contains the equivalent of 5.5 sugar cubes. In addition, the added sugar in fruit juice is free sugar. Excessive intake will increase the probability of people suffering from cardiovascular diseases, and at the same time, it will cause a decline in human immunity.
6. eating “fruit” of undesirable
lot of female beauty that “three meals a day eat only fruit, beauty self serve two purposes,” in fact, this is wrong. From the perspective of nutrition, the human body’s many basic nutritional needs-carbohydrates, minerals, protein, etc., can not be met by eating fruits alone. Long-term survival on fruits will affect the body’s endocrine system, digestive system, and immune system. Etc. will have adverse effects.
Patients with chronic diseases have contraindications to eat fruits
Different types of fruits contain different nutrients. Patients with chronic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, kidney disease, and dyslipidemia who eat the wrong fruits may aggravate the condition.
High blood fat and eat less durian: Although high-fiber foods such as fruits and vegetables are good choices for people with high cholesterol, some high-fat fruits also need to be cautious, including durian, coconut, and avocado. These fruits, like tallow and lard that contain a lot of saturated fatty acids, also increase the content of total cholesterol and “bad cholesterol” in the blood.
Hypertension patients eat more kiwi fruit: In their daily diet, hypertension patients must control their sodium intake, and eating high potassium foods can help sodium excretion, so such people can properly consume bananas, kiwi, guava, durian, High potassium fruits such as longan and coconut. Do not drink grapefruit juice when taking antihypertensive drugs. The naringenin contained in it will affect the function of certain enzymes in the liver, and this enzyme is related to the metabolism of antihypertensive drugs, which can easily cause excessive drug concentration in the blood and increase side effects .
Sugar friends should not drink freshly squeezed fruit juice: those with ideal blood sugar control (fasting blood sugar 4.0～7.0mmol/L, 2 hours postprandial blood sugar 4.0～10.0mmol/L, glycosylated hemoglobin less than 7.0%), choose low glycemic index and sugar content Low-volume fruits, such as papaya, cherries, strawberries, grapefruit, etc. Try to choose to eat between meals, avoid eating more at once, and consume about 200 grams a day, while reducing the amount of staple food (about 25 grams) accordingly. In addition, freshly squeezed fruit juice will increase sugar faster, so pay attention to avoid it.
Eat less pears and apples for gout: Although the rich vitamin C in the fruit can promote the dissolution of urate, thereby reducing uric acid, the fructose in the fruit is easily digested and absorbed, and will be quickly phosphorylated by fructokinase after a large amount of intake During the reaction, a large amount of adenosine monophosphate is produced, which accelerates metabolism to form uric acid. Therefore, gout patients should choose fruits such as kiwi, grapefruit, strawberry, blackberry, and pineapple to reduce the intake of fruits with high fructose content such as pears, grapes, and apples.
People with kidney disease eat less starfruit: Starfruit is not suitable for people with kidney disease because it contains a substance that affects nerve conduction. If people with poor kidney function eat it, it may cause neurological disorders and cause coma. Poor kidney function is difficult to excrete potassium, so it is generally necessary to choose low-potassium fruits, including apples, pears, grapefruits, etc.
Patients with liver disease should eat more citrus fruits: People with hepatitis can eat more fruits containing more vitamin C, such as oranges and red dates, but not more acidic fruits.
It should also be noted that patients with chronic diseases should not eat fruits before and within half an hour after taking the medicine, because some fruits contain substances that can chemically react with the medicine, thereby reducing the efficacy of the medicine.
Immature persimmons, apples, apricots, etc. contain a kind of tannins, which can easily chemically react with drugs, causing the drugs to accumulate and precipitate in the human body, and their solubility is reduced, thereby reducing the efficacy of the drugs. Most fruits contain citric acid and glucic acid, which will change the pH value in the human intestines and indirectly affect the effects of drugs. For example, oral penicillin drugs, etc., when they enter the intestines and stomach together with more acidic fruits such as hawthorn and grapes, they must Will affect the efficacy of the drug. Some drugs can be absorbed 60% on an empty stomach, but they may only be absorbed 40% after taking the medicine after meals or eating fruits. There are also many fruits that contain more fiber, which will also affect the metabolism of drugs. Fruits generally contain a certain amount of metal ions such as calcium and magnesium. These components can react comprehensively with certain drugs such as tetracycline to form complexes that are difficult to dissolve, which will hinder the absorption of the drug in the body and make the drug ineffective. Some have toxic side effects. For example, certain anti-allergic drugs may react with grapefruit and citrus fruits, causing arrhythmia and even fatal ventricular fibrillation. Patients with allergic rhinitis may have serious poisoning reactions and even death if they drink grapefruit juice while taking anti-allergic drugs such as terfenadine.