In nature, the most similar animal to humans is the chimpanzee, and their genetic similarity to humans is about 98.5%. Chimpanzees are definitely the “smart bears” of the animal world. They not only use tools, they also have a strong learning ability.
Chimpanzee is a species of the genus Chimpanzee of the Mammalia primate family. The ancestors of humans and chimpanzees separated from each other about 5-6 million years ago, and embarked on an independent evolutionary path. The former evolved into humans, while the latter split into two branches about 3 million years ago, and evolved into chimpanzees and bonobos. These two types of chimpanzees live in the forests of Africa. They are the closest animals to human blood, and they are the most intelligent animals in existence today.
Chimpanzees are similar to gorillas in form, because their body hair is relatively short and short, their body size appears thin, and females are smaller than males. Chimpanzees are mostly black, with round and flat tops, a pair of large fan-shaped ears, small and narrow nostrils, and long and thin lips. There are black body hair throughout the body, sparse chest and abdomen, slightly longer neck and shoulder arms, and gray and brown hair may gradually grow with age, and some individuals have white beards on the kisses.
Lively group life
1. Unstable family. Chimpanzees are distributed near the equator in Africa. They inhabit hot, humid, low-lying, tall and dense tropical deciduous rainforests, and most of them operate on the edge of the forest. Chimpanzees like to live in groups, and the size of the groups varies. Small groups have 3 to 5 members, and large groups can reach 30 to 50 members. The leader of the group is an adult male and has a certain hierarchical relationship. The members of the group show obedience such as giving way, nodding their heads, and whispering to the leader. The leader responds by touching his hand and touching his head. The members of a group often change. When encountering opportunities, they can leave the group and join other groups. There are also cases where elderly individuals are not accepted by any group and can only live alone. Sometimes conflicts can occur between different groups and even occasional cannibalism. When a male grows up, he often fights for a leader, but only a strong man can win.
2. Daily life is much more fun. Chimpanzees are semi-arboreal. They are much better at climbing trees than gorillas. They move to the ground with limbs and are supported by curved knuckles. This is a highly mobile animal with a certain range of activities, but its habitat is not fixed, it does not live in a place for a long time, and it spends more time moving underground in the daytime. Chimpanzees forage everywhere in the forest in the morning, will stop at a place to play and rest in the afternoon, and begin to prepare for nesting, interspersing large and small branches with leaves, paved on leafy trees about 4 to 30 meters from the ground At night, they went up to the tree to go to bed at dusk, and slept until after the sunrise the next morning. Chimpanzees have a strong curiosity, are not good at moving, are quick and smart, often gather together in the daytime and make a lot of noise, and they are very confused. They have to be around almost every 20 minutes. “Swing”, “hide and seek” games.
3. Foraging highlights creativity. The food of chimpanzees is mainly the fruits, fresh leaves, and young shoots of plants. They also eat bananas and fruits in the countryside. In the season when fruit is scarce, chimpanzees also eat insects, birds and termites, and even collectively round up larger animals such as baboons, antelopes and wild boars. When they rush to kill the prey, they will tear the prey into pieces and share the whole group together. The use of tools is a phenomenon that exists in many animals, but chimpanzees can process them to some extent before using certain tools. Although this processing is extremely simple and rough, after all, it is an active, purposeful, and conscious transformation of objects to make them more suitable for use. For example, it can not only use a forefinger to burrow an ant’s hole, but also pick up a tree branch or a straw stick, hold the palm of your hand to chop off the blade of grass, reach into the hole, and fish out the ant to eat. If the straw stick is bent, bite the elbow or change another. In addition, two stone tools will be used to place and knock on the fruit, as well as tap the branches with long wooden sticks, eat the leaves, and use the sticks to dip honey into the honey and eat. Even more surprising is that sometimes it can first chew leaves into a sponge shape in its mouth, put it in a tree hole that is difficult to reach into the mouth to absorb the water, and then fish it out and suck the water in the mouth. It will even look for some herbs to treat gastrointestinal diseases on its own.
4. Unique breeding. Chimpanzee population members have loose sexual relationships, and females can mate with multiple males, but there are also “specific emotions”. Chimpanzees can estrus all year round, especially in spring and autumn. It is the only anthropoid ape with periodic skin swelling. The female animal’s skin is very swollen during estrus. At the peak of ovulation, the buttocks are swollen to the maximum extent and they are blistered. Females give birth to one litter per pregnancy, with a gestation period of about 228 days and a lactation period of about one year. The postpartum females are extremely motherly, often allowing the pups to grab their body hair, hold them tightly in their arms, and let them ride on their body after being older. The pups develop rapidly and can live independently after 1 year of age, but will not separate from the female until fully mature. Males are 8 to 10 years old, females are 6 to 8 years old and sexually mature, life expectancy is 35 to 40 years.
Coexistence of “dual business”
1. Touching emotional intelligence. Chimpanzees can make expressions of joy, anger, sorrow, joy, etc. When companions meet, they will shout loudly and express greetings, and some also lie to each other, hold hands, hug, kiss or touch each other’s face and neck. When an individual is irritable, the companion puts his hand on his shoulder to calm him down. When exchanging ideas and information, not only rely on different voices, but also use a variety of postures and gestures to express more complex feelings. For example, when you see ripe fruit on the tree, you will yell loudly to inform your companion to feed; when attacked, you will make a frightening or painful howl to let your companion come to support; a member catches the prey Other members will reach out to ask for it; when they are surprised, they always touch or hug the partner next to them; when they find rich fruits, they will show a happy expression, and kiss and hug with their friends passionately to express excitement. Companions often comb their hair, scratch itches, and catch parasites to promote emotional communication.
2. Superior IQ. Studies have shown that chimpanzees may be smarter than humans, at least surpassing humans in terms of short-term memory. A video taken by the Primate Research Association of Kyoto University in Japan shows that a chimpanzee called “Ayumu” has unusual memory ability: When the numbers 1-9 are randomly displayed and disappeared on the screen, the chimpanzee can recall each number Exact order and location. At the same time, Ayumu also learned the numbers 1 to 19 and was able to touch them one by one in ascending order.
Some chimpanzees are trained not only to master certain techniques and sign language, but also to use computer keyboards to learn vocabulary, and their capabilities are even higher than those of two-year-olds. Do you love such a clever chimpanzee?