According to the “China White Paper on Osteoporosis Prevention and Control” issued by the International Osteoporosis Foundation, as of now, at least 70,000 people in China suffer from osteoporosis, and another 210 million people have bone masses below normalized standards. In addition to medical treatment under the guidance of a doctor, it is also very important for osteoporosis patients to insist on scientific and reasonable physical exercise.
Exercise can relieve bone loss
Clinical studies have shown that calcium supplementation alone will neither significantly increase bone density nor improve bone quality. Regular exercisers can increase the stress on the bones and increase the strength of the muscles, which is conducive to the growth of bones, and can often obtain higher peak bone mass and better bone quality. This is because exercise will generate mechanical stress on the bones, stimulate bone cells, increase bone levels, and increase bone density; moderate exercise can also promote the secretion of testosterone, estradiol and other sex hormones, thereby promoting bone protein synthesis, which is beneficial to calcium Retention and deposition can promote bone growth and development, and thicken the cortical bone; exercise can also improve the blood flow of cortical bone, prevent bone loss, promote the absorption and utilization of calcium, and enhance muscle strength and improve physical fitness; During outdoor sports, people will be exposed to ultraviolet rays. Ultraviolet rays can promote the synthesis of substances in the body, mainly the synthesis of vitamin D. Vitamin D is a substance that promotes the development of the ossification layer and helps calcium absorption.
WHO gives exercise prescription
The World Health Organization has clearly put forward three principles for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis: calcium supplementation, exercise therapy and dietary regulation. The WHO has also issued specific exercise prescriptions for osteoporosis, which mainly include the following training methods:
1. Exercise methods to increase muscle strength and endurance. Upper limb tension training and hand grip training are used to prevent and treat osteoporosis of the humerus and radius; single leg standing, squatting plus tension training, lower limb extension, abduction exercises, and wall squatting training can be used to prevent and treat the proximal femur Osteoporosis; exercise training such as straight leg raising, bridge exercise, trunk extensor, etc., used to prevent and treat thoracolumbar osteoporosis.
2. Aerobic exercise. Aerobic exercises such as walking and running can enhance cardiopulmonary function, stretch muscles, improve body flexibility, and are also good for bones. Adhere to 3 to 5 days a week, 30 minutes a day. It should be noted that it is not a leisurely walk but a big step. It is recommended to exercise under the guidance of a professional. Studies have shown that running 4 hours a week reduces the risk of fracture by 41% (compared to those who run less than 1 hour a week).
3. Swimming and water weight training. Swimming can not only increase muscle strength, strengthen bones, but also improve cardiopulmonary function and promote blood circulation. Because swimming does not excessively increase the load on the knee joints and spine, it is especially suitable for elderly patients and patients with osteoporosis combined with osteoarthritis and lumbar disease. Studies have found that some appropriate weight-bearing exercise and physical activity can reduce the risk of hip fractures.
4. Improve balance training. Including balance training in standing, sitting, and lying positions to prevent falls.
The elderly mainly use gentle exercise
The whole body functions of the elderly are in a stage of degeneration, bones will appear osteoporosis, trabecular bones will become weaker, muscles, joints, and ligaments are also in a state of poor mobility, low toughness, The brittle stage. Therefore, the exercises of elderly patients with osteoporosis should mainly be gentle exercises, such as Tai Chi, which does not exceed the basic capacity of the body, can promote blood circulation, and can maintain a certain amount of muscle activity. A study published in the Journal of Physicians and Sports Medicine found that Tai Chi can slow down the rate of bone loss in postmenopausal women. These women practice Tai Chi for 45 minutes a day, 5 times a week for 1 year, compared with others , The rate of bone loss slowed by 1/3.
In addition, pay attention to controlling the intensity of exercise. The elderly and the infirm should choose moderate-intensity exercise, generally reaching 70% to 85% of the maximum heart rate, lasting 40 to 60 minutes, and not feeling tired the next day.
What needs to be reminded is that you should consult a doctor before deciding to do any exercise, especially if you are taking a certain drug that affects the coordination and balance of the body; exercise can only achieve the goal with long-term persistence, even if the bones grow extremely fast For young people, it takes 3 to 4 months to rebuild healthy bones. For osteoporosis patients or the elderly, this process is even longer