Exclusively crack the secret of efficient reading

Does humanity carry the gene of reading itself?

Can humans read because the organs in the brain are pre-installed, or are they learning the results of the day after tomorrow?

To solve these puzzles, we need to know some concepts about the brain.

The human brain is made up of 1 trillion cells, which are divided into nerve cells and glial cells. Nerve cells, also called neurons, account for about one-tenth of brain cells and play an extremely important role in the human brain and human nervous system. Each neuron is the same size, with thousands of synapses protruding from its center. This synapse can be stimulated by the outside world, and these stimuli are transmitted to the cell body and transmitted to another nerve via the cell body. yuan. The stimulation between neurons and neurons is very fast, and can be spread throughout an adult’s body in 5 seconds.

Another type of brain cell is a glial cell, which binds neurons together while filtering harmful substances and preventing harmful substances from contacting neurons. Neuroscience refers to the connection between neurons and neurons through long synapses, called neural circuits. A single neuron can hardly perform any function, and the brain must rely on a neural circuit for information processing.

In 1949, psychologist Herb put forward the idea that “regularly active neurons will join together to form a new neural circuit.” This view proved to be correct with the development of imaging and neuroscience. And further trigger the discussion of the plasticity of the brain. The term “plasticity” refers to the property of deforming a substance by an external force and maintaining the deformation. The so-called brain plasticity refers to the possibility that the human brain can be shaped and kept changing. The core reason for the plasticity of the brain is that the synapses of the neurons have plasticity, which can change the strength of the connection between the neurons and form a new neural circuit.

For example, blind people lose sight, but their tactile abilities are particularly developed. When blind people learn to touch Braille by hand, the tissue area in their brains that control body movements and tactile signals will increase and their activity will increase. Even more surprising is that the organization responsible for visual signal processing in their brains began to deal with the touch from the fingers. The same example is the taxi driver, who has a higher memory on the route than the average person. This is because there is a bow-shaped tissue at the bottom of the human brain’s marginal zone, called the “hippocampus,” and the hippocampus plays a key role in consolidating memory. Studies have shown that the hippocampus of taxi drivers are much larger than the average person. They drive for a long time, and they must remember a large number of driving routes. The connection capability of the space navigation neural circuit is also stronger than the average person.

So, what is the relationship between the plasticity of neurons and the brain and human reading?

Studies have shown that humans do not carry the genes of reading innately. No matter how knowledgeable and outstanding their fathers are, they cannot pass their life experiences and knowledge to the next generation through genes. The acquisition of a child’s intellectual ability and the growth of intelligence can only be understood and learned through reading. Reading is a process of acquired learning. The human brain was not originally used for reading, but focused on hunting and gathering.

Human evolution has only been 2 million years, and the emergence of words has only been 5,000 years. The human brain does not have enough time to evolve a specialized reading mechanism. Instead, it borrows some of the existing neural circuits, that is, the neural circuits that are used by ancestors for object recognition, called “reuse of neurons.” .

Let’s take an example. A human close relative, a chimpanzee, can’t read it, but its brain is very similar to the human brain. Studies have shown that chimpanzee neurons have been able to abstract objects they see, and neurons in chimpanzees have been used to identify the shape of objects. For example, chimpanzees see the letter “A” as long as it is known. Bull head with two horns.

Similarly, the human brain does not have a specific area for reading, but because of the plasticity of the brain, our visual system has become a text recognition tool. On the basis of the original structure, the brain links the parts of the basic cognition, such as vision and memory, to form a new neural circuit. Over time, this new neural circuit gradually develops into a language closely related to reading. District, humans slowly learned the reasoning, analogy and critical analysis, and then formed the ability to think deeply. In this way, human beings form a readable brain, the so-called reading brain.

Reading the brain is actually an adaptive mechanism that humans slowly build up in the reading training of the day after tomorrow. It is the re-use of the neural circuit of the human brain. For example, when a child reads a picture book in the company of his parents, he will closely associate the contact picture and text with the parent’s voice. Correspondingly, the relevant neurons in the child’s brain begin to be connected in synchronization. A new neural circuit is established in the neural structure, and the reading ability is slowly developed.

Humans are not born to read. There is a nerve cell called a neuron in the brain. The nerves and neurons can form a neural circuit because of the synaptic connection. The brain needs to rely on the neural circuit for information processing. The plasticity of neurons brings about the plasticity of the brain, allowing humans to use the visual area of ​​the brain to recognize the original words and gradually establish new neural circuits to become reading brains.