In May 1938, Mao Zedong once again put himself in the cave, he did not go out seven days and seven nights, in addition to two meals a day porridge and pickles, is constantly pumping low-quality paper smoke, buried writing, so that even the cotton shoes were brazier Baked, he also unaware, the guardian He Qinghua later said: “seven days and seven nights do not sleep, that is, iron people have to go down, ah, the chairman was really a fight.” Mao Zedong is written in the seven days and seven nights “On the protracted war”.
Feng Yuxiang get this book, immediately printed at least 3 thousand copies, sent to the Kuomintang dignitaries, and Bai Chongxi read, it is greatly admired, he also attributed from the “plot wins for victory, to space for time” These two words, such as the treasure of the Bai Chongxi in the “theory of protracted war” to Chiang Kai-shek, and this time, even Chiang Kai-shek can not but agree with Mao’s strategic thinking.
During the eight years of the Anti-Japanese War, the Kuomintang and the Communist Party were jointly engaged in foreign aggression, and the strategy of guiding the war of resistance against Japan was provided by Mao Zedong.
In the autumn of 1956, former Japanese Kwantung Army chief of staff, naval aviation commander Endo Saburo, in Beijing to see his most respected opponent Mao Zedong.
Endo Saburo, born in 1893 in Yamagata Prefecture, Japan, 15 years old into the Japanese noncommission school, then studied at the French Army University, in the Japanese ruling group, he was called “thought of the soldiers.” Yamagata, known as a knife, in that meeting, Endo Saburo ancestral treasure knife dedicated to Mao Zedong. Po from the 14th century Japan Kamakura era “artisan” rice light hand, is the end of the army to join the military school, the grandfather presented to his heirloom. This is an unexpected move, is the Japanese soldier’s unprecedented gift.
Endo Saburo said, defeated to be defeated, defeated in the hands of Mao Zedong, Japan sincere convincing. Prior to this, Endo Saburo is like most Japanese soldiers, like China is simply not convinced. In his view, both in the military, the degree of modernization or national strength, Japan is far stronger than China. He believes that Japan is a purely military strategic failure, the key lies in Japan in the “mainland policy” and “marine policy” did not make a clear judgment between the choice and choice.
Initiate the beginning of the war of aggression, the Japanese strategy is the founder of Ishihara. According to Shijiazhuang, the idea of Japan, if the occupation of China’s three northeastern provinces after the full attack on the Soviet Union, then, in Germany and Japan under the attack, the Soviet Union is difficult not to be defeated. And if the DPRK, the Manchukuo and Japan as a base, if 20 years of long-term preparation, and then fully compete with the United States for the Pacific, then the Japanese occupation of the eastern Pacific, and the United States ” possible.
At the beginning of the original design of Ishihara said: “Japan, fresh, full (full Manchu) integration” as the premise, to achieve the “second industrial revolution”, which includes the establishment of an annual output of 20 million tons of iron and steel The company plans to produce 10,000 aircraft, the artificial oil as a research and development focus, mass production of aircraft, automobiles, ships, industrial machinery, which also includes the opening of the North Korean Channel submarine tunnel, the construction of a starting from Japan, Central Asia arrived in Europe Trunk plan.
It takes 20 years to achieve this plan. Ishiharahara originally envisaged the completion of the second industrial revolution, the Japanese and then move to the Siberian and Pacific.
However, in the Endo view, because “no mind” Dongying British machine instead of Ishihara, this ambitious plan ran aground, and, until the defeat, Japan’s strategy is still in the “mainland” and “ocean” Wandering, and in the whole war, the Japanese Supreme Command did not form their own clear strategy. This is the real reason why he understood the defeat of Japan.
In February 1947, Endo was imprisoned as a war criminal in Tokyo’s nest duck prison, a year later he was released. Since then, Endo Saburo in Saitama plow farming for life, in addition to farming, he usually closed the door, struggling to think about the reasons for the defeat of Japan, until he read Mao Zedong’s “protracted war”, his ideas from the boom Destroyed, he said: his “consciousness in the night”, Mao Zedong’s “protracted war” at least hit from the three aspects of the key to the Japanese strategy, but also hit the essentials of Endo Saburo.
First of all, Mao Zedong in the “protracted war” pointed out that the contest between China and Japan is by no means a simple military contest, because fundamentally speaking, this is a political contest. In the “war and politics” part, Mao Zedong pointed out: war is political continuation, war is bloodshed politics, politics is not bloodshed war. On the political nature of the Sino-Japanese war, Mao Zedong wrote:
Political development to a certain stage, no longer can go forward, so the outbreak of war, to remove the obstacles on the political road. For example, China’s semi-independent status is an obstacle to the political development of the Japanese imperialists, and Japan has to sweep it, so it has launched a war of aggression. China? Imperialist oppression, has long been an obstacle to the bourgeois democratic revolution in China, so there are many times the liberation war, trying to remove this obstacle.
From a historical point of view, Japan has a warrior class, and China’s disadvantage lies in the ruler is a scribe class, which is the difference between the two social structures, this social structure is different, resulting in different ways of political mobilization. Japan’s political mobilization is based on the feudal warrior system, Japan’s political mobilization is relatively fast, but the scope is limited, while China’s political mobilization, although slow, but the depth and breadth is much larger than Japan. If China can carry out a wide mobilization of the whole nation and form an army with the people, then the Japanese military system will be defeated by all the Chinese people, Japan’s military advantage will be China’s political mobilization Aspects of the comprehensive, wide range of advantages to overcome.
In the “political mobilization of the anti-Japanese” part, Mao Zedong fully discussed why a comprehensive political mobilization is the key to victory in the war. he thinks:
Such a great national revolutionary war, there is no universal and in-depth political mobilization, can not win. Before the anti-Japanese, there is no anti-Japanese political mobilization, which is China’s big flaws. After the anti-Japanese, political mobilization is also very common, the majority of the people, from the enemy’s fire and aircraft bombs to hear the news. This is also a mobilization, but this is the enemy for us to do. This situation must be changed, otherwise, desperate war can not win. Mobilize the people of the country, it caused the collapse of the storm in the ocean, resulting in remedies to make up for defects such as weapons, resulting in the premise of all the difficulties to overcome the war. To win, we must adhere to the war of resistance, adhere to the united front, adhere to a protracted war. But all this, can not do without mobilize the people. To win and ignore the political mobilization, called “the South and its North and its rut,” the results must be canceled victory.
Mao Zedong then pointed out that political mobilization is “must make every soldier every people understand why to fight, war and what they have a relationship.” This is largely a culture and propaganda contest, so the war of resistance is also a cultural thought of war and struggle. he thinks:
What is political mobilization? The first is to inform the army and the people of the political purpose of war. Must make every soldier every people understand why to fight, war and what they have to do. The political purpose of the Anti-Japanese War was to “expel the Japanese imperialists and establish a new China free and equal”, and must tell all the military people of this purpose in order to make the anti-Japanese boom so that tens of thousands of people will be united and contribute to the war. Secondly, we must also explain the steps and policies to achieve this purpose. Now that we have the “Ten Program of Anti-Japanese and National Salvation” and the “Anti-Japanese Warring States Program”, we should spread them to the army and the people and mobilize all the troops and The people are practicing. Not a clear specific political program, can not mobilize the whole army in the end of the anti-Japanese. How to mobilize Rely on the mouth to say, by leaflets notice, by the newspaper books, by drama movies, by school, by the public groups, by cadres. The political mobilization of the Anti-Japanese War is frequent. To contact the development of war, contact soldiers and the lives of ordinary people, the political mobilization of war, into a regular movement. This is a great thing, the war first depends on it to win.
Second, the “protracted war” that the contest between China and Japan, not only the degree of modernization of the contest, but also the will and the people of the contest is the political quality of the military contest, if the Chinese army to continuously improve the political quality, Will continue to offset the advantages of Japan in the equipment.
In the part of “the people are the victory”, Mao Zedong talked about the relationship between the military’s political superiority and the superiority of equipment. he thinks:
The reform of the military system can not be separated from the modernization of the technical conditions, without this, is not the enemy through the Yalu River. The use of the military need to improve the flexibility of the strategic tactics, without this, but also can not win. However, the basis of the army in the soldiers, there is no progressive political spirit into the army, there is no progress in political work to carry out this note, you can not achieve the real officers and soldiers of the same, you can not inspire the officers and men of the greatest resistance to war , All the technology and tactics can not get the best foundation to play their due effect.
Then, Mao Zedong once again discussed his basic view, the basic reason for the decline of China is that people do not organize, the community has no organizational capacity, once the people organized, then China’s social structure will be a fundamental change, the Japanese warriors Organization, can not compete with the masses of the masses of China. He said:
The most profound source of the mighty force of war is in the people. Japan dare to bully us, the main reason is that the Chinese people’s unorganized state. To overcome this shortcoming, put the Japanese invaders before the tens of thousands of people we stood up, make it like a bison into the fire array, we must also call it a startled, this bison Do not burn dead.
As long as the people organized, as long as there is a people’s army, “the army will invincible the world, a Japanese imperialism is not enough to play” – in the Chinese nation into a time of subjugation, Mao Zedong’s confident voice, such as the horn Pierced the long night
“On the protracted war” that the contest between China and Japan, nor between the two countries, but the global strategy of the contest. It threatened the interests of the United States in the Pacific, and Japan annexation of China’s northeast, but also in the direction of the mainland posed a serious threat to the Soviet Union, from the point of view, although Japan is to isolate China, but from a global perspective , Japan itself has been isolated, at present, China is only fighting with Japan, and in the near future, Japan will have to fight with the United States and the Soviet Union at the same time. Compared to China, Japan, of course, in the military, the degree of modernization and national strength are dominant, but this advantage is superficial. In essence, Japan is at a disadvantage in three aspects of political mobilization, will’s contest and global strategy. It is from the three aspects of political mobilization, social organization and global strategy. Japan will fail and China’s war will win.