Pure white candy should consist entirely of cane sugar with its water
of crystallisation, but most of the article commonly met with contains
a large proportion of glucose, and in many cases it is wholly composed
of this compound (see p. 109). Starch and terra alba (_i. e._ gypsum or
kaolin), are the other adulterants sometimes employed to fraudulently
increase the bulk and weight of candy.

The substances used for colouring purposes are more liable to be
positively deleterious. While such colouring agents as caramel,
turmeric, litmus, saffron, beet-juice, indigo, and some of the coal-tar
dyes may be considered comparatively harmless, there can be no question
in regard to the very objectionable character of certain other pigments
which are sometimes employed: these are mainly inorganic, and include
plumbic chromate, salts of copper and arsenic, zinc-white, barium
sulphate and Prussian blue. Another occasional form of adulteration
to which some kinds of confectionery are exposed, is the admixture of
artificial flavourings, such as “pear essence” (amylic and ethylic
acetates), “banana essence” (a mixture of amylic acetate and ethylic
butyrate), and oil of bitter almonds, or its imitation, nitro-benzole.
A preparation known as “rock and rye drops,” which had acquired a great
popularity among school children in several of our large cities, proved
upon analysis to consist of a mixture of glucose, flour, and fusel oil.

The examination of candy and other forms of confectionery usually
embraces the determinations of glucose, starch, flour, colouring and
flavouring agents, terra alba, and mineral admixtures generally. The
detection and estimation of glucose has already been described under

Starch and flour are readily detected upon treating a minute portion of
the suspected candy with a little water and submitting the mixture to a
microscopic examination, when, in their presence, the insoluble residue
will exhibit the characteristic forms of starch granules. The insoluble
portion of the sample may also be tested with a solution of iodine. The
proportion of starch can be determined by boiling the matter insoluble
in water with dilute sulphuric acid, and estimating the amount of
glucose found, by means of Fehling’s solution.

Coal-tar and vegetable compounds used for colouring purposes, can
often, be recognised by means of their behaviour with reducing and
oxidising agents, by their solubility in spirits and other menstrua,
and by the application of dyeing-tests. Thus vegetable colours may
sometimes be identified upon boiling mordanted cotton yarn in a bath
prepared from a portion of the sample containing the colouring matter,
and slightly acidulated with acetic acid. This process will likewise
generally reveal the presence of aniline dyes, unmordanted woollen
cloth being substituted for cotton, and a neutral bath being employed.
The inorganic pigments used for colouring candy are usually to be
sought for in the ash obtained upon incineration.

The presence of copper and lead is detected by the formation of
black precipitates upon saturating with sulphuretted hydrogen the
solution of the ash in hydrochloric acid; zinc, chromium, etc., are
precipitated from the filtered solution upon addition of ammonium
hydroxide and ammonium sulphide. It is frequently more convenient to
apply special tests for the particular metal thought to be present,
either directly to the pigment or to the ash. In this way, arsenic can
often be recognised by treating a portion of the colouring matter in a
test-tube, when it will sublime and collect upon the cool part of the
tube in minute crystals of arsenious acid. Or, an acidulated solution
of the detached pigments may be boiled with a piece of polished
copper-foil, upon which the arsenic will be deposited as a greyish
film: this can be sublimed, and otherwise further examined.

Copper is easily detected and estimated by placing the acid solution
of the ash in a tared platinum dish, and reducing the copper by the
electrolytic method. Chromium is recognised upon boiling the colouring
matter with potassium carbonate solution: in its presence, potassium
chromate is formed, which is submitted to the usual distinctive tests
for chromium. The colour of Prussian blue is destroyed upon warming
it with caustic alkalies: indigo, which remains unaffected by this
treatment, forms a blue solution if heated with concentrated sulphuric
acid. The presence of terra alba, barium sulphate, etc., is best
detected by the examination of the ash. Chalk, or marble-dust, is
recognised by its effervescence when treated with an acid, as well as
by the presence of a notable proportion of lime in the ash.

Many of the flavouring mixtures added to candy may be separated
by treating the sample with chloroform or petroleum naphtha and
evaporating the solution to dryness over a water-bath, when their
identity is frequently revealed by their odour and other physical
properties. Of 198 samples of the cheaper varieties of confectionery
examined by Health officials in the United States, 115 were
adulterated. Plumbic chromate is a very common addition; 41 out of 48
samples of yellow- and orange-coloured candy contained this poisonous


The name beer is most commonly applied to a fermented infusion of
malted barley, flavoured with hops. Its manufacture embraces two
distinct operations, _viz._, malting and brewing. Briefly considered,
the former process consists in first steeping barley (the seed of
_Hordeum distichon_) in water and allowing it to germinate by arranging
it in layers or heaps which are subsequently spread out and repeatedly
turned over, the germination being thereby retarded; it is afterwards
entirely checked by drying the grain (now known as _malt_) in cylinders
or kilns.

The degree of temperature employed in drying and roasting the barley
determines the colour and commercial character of the malt, which may
be pale, amber, brown or black. In the United States the light-coloured
varieties of malt are chiefly made. An important change which takes
place during the malting of barley is the conversion of its albuminous
constituents into a peculiar ferment, termed _diastase_, which,
although its proportion in malt does not exceed 0·003 per cent., exerts
a very energetic action in transforming starch, first into dextrine,
then into sugar (maltose). The following analyses, by Proust, exhibit
the general composition of unmalted and malted barley:–

| | Barley. | Malt. |
| +—————+————-+
| Hordeine | 55 | 12 |
| Starch | 32 | 56 |
| Gluten | 3 | 1 |
| Sugar | 5 | 15 |
| Mucilage | 4 | 15 |
| Resin | 1 | 1 |
| | — | — |
| | 100 | 100 |

The body termed hordeine is generally considered to be an allotropic
modification of starch.

In the brewing of beer, the malted grain is crushed by means of iron
rollers, and then introduced into the mash-tubs and digested with
water at a temperature of about 75°, whereby the conversion of the
starch into dextrine and sugar is effected. After standing for a few
hours, the clear infusion, or _wort_, is drawn off and boiled with hops
(the female flower of _Humulus lupulus_), after which it is rapidly
cooled, and then placed in capacious vats where it is mixed with
yeast and allowed to undergo the process of fermentation for several
days, during which the formation of fresh quantities of yeast and a
partial decomposition of the sugar into alcohol and carbonic acid take
place. The beer is next separated from the yeast and transferred into
clearing-vats, and, later on, into storage casks, where it undergoes
a slow after-fermentation, at the completion of which it is ready for
consumption. The quality of the water used in the process of mashing
and brewing is of great importance, and it is of special moment that it
should be free from all organic contaminations. The presence of certain
mineral ingredients, notably of calcium sulphate, is believed to exert
a beneficial effect on the character of the beer obtained.

In the United States, the best known varieties of malt liquors are
ale, porter, and lager beer. The difference between ale and porter is
mainly due to the quality of the malt used in their manufacture. Ale
is made from pale malt, porter or stout from a mixture of the darker
coloured malts, the method of fermentation employed being in both cases
that known as the “superficial” (_obergährung_), which takes place at
a higher temperature and is of shorter duration than the “sedimentary”
(_untergährung_). The latter form of fermentation, which is used in the
preparation of Bavarian or lager beer, occurs at a temperature of about
8°, and requires more time for its completion, during which the beer
is, or should be, preserved in cool cellars for several months before
it is fit for use; hence the common American name of this kind of beer,
from _lager_, a storehouse. There are three varieties of Bavarian beer,
“lager beer” proper, or the summer beer, which has been stored for
about five months; “_schenk_,” or winter beer, which is fit for use in
several weeks; and “_bock_” beer, which possesses more strength than
the former, and is made in comparatively small quantities in the spring
of the year. A mild kind of malt liquor, known as “_weiss_” beer, and
prepared by a quick process of fermentation, is less frequently met

The first brewery in America is said to have been founded in New
York in the year 1644, by Jacobus, who afterwards became the first
burgomaster of the city, then New Amsterdam. Subsequently, William
Penn established a brewery in Bucks Co., Pa., and a century later,
General Putnam engaged in the manufacture of beer in the State of
Connecticut. The brewing of lager beer in the United States began to
assume prominence about thirty-five years ago. It is estimated that, at
the present time, over 2000 breweries are devoted to the preparation
of this form of malt liquor, with an invested capital of at least 60
millions of dollars, the annual production exceeding 15 millions of
barrels.[69] The industry is chiefly carried on in New York, Brooklyn,
Philadelphia, Milwaukee, St. Louis, and Cincinnati.

The composition of beer naturally varies according to the kind of
grain from which it is made and the process of fermentation employed.
The chief ingredients are alcohol, carbonic acid, sugar (maltose),
dextrine, the oil and bitter principle of hops (lupuline), albuminoids,
lactic, acetic, succinic and propionic acids, inorganic salts, and
traces of glycerine. The term “extract” is applied to the non-volatile
constituents, which include the sugar, dextrine, albuminoids, ash, etc.
The foregoing table, collated from the analyses of various chemists,
gives the general composition of some of the best known brands of malt
liquor, as well as the minimum and maximum proportions that have been

|Specific Gravity.
| +————————————————
| |Carbonic Acid.
| | +——————————————
| | |Alcohol (by weight).
| | | +————————————-
| | | |Extract.
| | | | +——————————-
| | | | |Albuminoids.
Variety. | | | | | +————————–
| | | | | |Sugar.
| | | | | | +———————
| | | | | | | Dextrine.
| | | | | | | +—————-
| | | | | | | |Phosphoric Acid.
| | | | | | | +———-+
| | | | | | | |Acid. |
| | | | | | | | +—–+
| | | | | | | | |Ash. |
| |p.c. |p.c.|p.c. |p.c.|p.c.|p.c.|p.c.|p.c. |p.c.
Porter |1·0207|0·16 | 5·4| 6·0 |0·83| .. |7·72|0·24|0·40 | ..
Scotch ale | .. |0·15 | 8·5|10·9 |0·77|0·34|2·50|0·19| .. | ..
Burton ale |1·0106| .. | 5·9|14·5 |0·57| .. |3·64|0·32| .. | ..
Munich | | | | | | | | | |
(Salvator)|1·0129|0·18 | 4·6| 9·4 |0·67| .. | .. | .. | .. | ..
„ (Bock) |1·0118|0·17 | 4·2| 9·2 | .. |0·80| .. | .. |0·22 |0·024
„ (Schenk) | .. | .. | 3·8| 5·8 | .. | .. |6·17|0·14| .. | ..
„ (Lager) |1·0110|0·15 | 5·1| 5·0 |0·83|0·35| .. |0·20|0·21 | ..
Berlin | .. | .. | 3·1| 5·8 | .. | .. | .. | .. |0·21 | ..
„ (Tivoli) | .. | .. |4·35| 5·14| .. | .. | .. |0·23|0·19 | ..
Erlanger | .. | .. |4·56| 4·81| .. |0·40|1·44| .. |0·48 | ..
Thüringer | | | | | | | | | |
(common) | .. | .. |2·00| .. | .. |0·31|7·71| .. | .. | ..
Culmbacher |1·0228| .. |4·00| 7·38|0·53| .. | .. |0·16| .. | ..
American | | | | | | | | | |
lager, | | | | | | | | | |
average 19 | | | | | | | | | |
samples |1·0162| .. |2·78| 6·05| .. |1·52| .. |0·19|0·305|0·105
American ale |1·0150| .. |4·69| 6·50|0·74|4·96| .. | .. |0·253|0·080
American | | | | | | | | | |
lager, 474 | | | | | | | | | |
samples | | | | | | | | | |
maximum |1·0370| .. |8·99| 9·54| .. | .. | .. | .. |0·46 |0·166
minimum |0·999 | .. |0·68| 1·28| .. | .. | .. | .. |0·10 |0·028
According to | | | | | | | | | |
König | | | | | | | | | |
maximum |1·034 |0·500| 7·3|11·24|1·98|2·45|7·85|0·40|0·48 |0·09
minimum |1·0100|0·100|1·00| 2·60|0·02|0·10|1·46|0·08|0·14 |0·02

The composition of beer ash is evidently affected by the character of
the water used in the brewing process. Blyth gives the following as the
average composition of the ash of English beers:–

Per cent.
Potash 37·22
Soda 8·04
Lime 1·93
Magnesia 5·51
Ferric oxide traces
Sulphuric acid 1·44
Phosphoric acid 32·09
Chlorine 2·91
Silica 10·82

The following results were obtained by the writer from the analysis of
the ash of American lager beer of fair quality:–

Per cent.
Silica 9·97
Alumina and ferric oxide 0·46
Lime 3·55
Magnesia 7·27
Soda 13·81
Potassa 19·59
Sulphuric acid 3·25
Chlorine 4·40
Phosphoric acid 37·70

Percentage of ash 0·274

Strictly speaking, normal beer consists solely of the product of malt
and hops, and the presence of any ingredients other than these should
be regarded as an adulteration. It is maintained by brewers, and
with justice, that the term “malt” is not necessarily restricted to
barley, but includes other varieties of malted grain, such as wheat,
corn, and rice. The old English law, while permitting the addition
of wholesome bitters, prohibits the use of various other substances,
but in the United States, no legal definition of pure beer has, as
yet, been formulated, and the necessity for such a measure is being
experienced.[70] The past literature of beer adulteration makes mention
of very numerous substances which, in former times, have been resorted
to as admixtures. Among these the following are the most prominent:–

1st. _Artificial bitters._–Picric acid, picrotoxine, aloes, gentian,
quassia, and wormwood. Several years ago the author had occasion to
examine two samples, imported under the name of “hop substitutes,” both
of which proved to consist of _salicine_, the bitter principle of the
willow. The fruit of the hop tree (_Ptelea trifoliata_), has also been
employed as an artificial bitter for beer.

2nd. _Flavourings._–For flavouring purposes, cayenne pepper, “grains
of paradise,” cloves, orris root, coriander seeds, the oils of anise,
nutmegs, and carraway, are stated to have been used.

3rd. _Malt substitutes._–These mainly consist of corn, rice, and

A substitute for malt, of rather recent origin, and commercially known
as “cerealine,” is prepared by subjecting hulled and coarsely ground
Indian corn to the action of steam, the product being subsequently
pulverised by means of hot rollers. It is said to have the following
average composition:–

Water 9·98
Insoluble starch 61·43
Soluble starch, dextrine, and maltose 17·79
Albuminoids 9·07
Oil 1·22
Cellulose 0·23
Mineral matter 0·28

In addition to the foregoing, several chemical compounds, such as
ammonium carbonate, tartaric acid, alkaline phosphates, boric and
salicylic acids and glycerine are, or at least have been, employed
as accessories in the manufacture of beer. From the investigations
of the New York State Board of Health, it appears that the present
adulteration of American beer–more especially of “lager beer”–is
limited, so far as the brewer is concerned, to the use of various
substitutes for malt, the addition of salt, and of sodium bicarbonate.

The proportion of diastase obtained by the germination of barley, or
other cereals, is largely in excess of the amount required to convert
into sugar the starch actually present in the grain treated; hence
the brewer can add other forms of amylaceous substances, such as corn
or rice, to malted barley with decided economy, and the majority of
New York brewers employ such substitutes, usually in a proportion of
25 per cent. The brewer may likewise advantageously add glucose syrup
to the malt infusion, since, by its use, he arrives at the same end,
_i. e._ instead of obtaining all of his sugar as the result of the
malting process, he directly provides himself with the same body, at
least so far as it possesses value to him as a source of alcohol. The
question of the sanitary effects of the use of artificial glucose as an
adulterant of sugar and syrups, and as a substitute for malted grain
in the manufacture of beer, has given rise to extensive controversy.
In this regard, one fact seems to have been demonstrated. Glucose,
as it is now to be found on the market, is free from any appreciable
amount of deleterious contamination. The discovery of its artificial
production has given birth to a very important branch of industry, and,
according to all available reports, the commercial product at present
met with is for many purposes an economical and harmless substitute for
cane sugar, the chief objection to its application as such being the
fact that it possesses considerably less sweetening power.

The United States National Academy of Sciences, after having carefully
investigated the sanitary aspects of the glucose question, arrived at
the following conclusion:[71] “That, though having at best only about
two-thirds the sweetening power of cane sugar, yet starch sugar is in
no way inferior to the cane sugar in healthfulness, there being no
evidence before the committee that maize-starch sugar, either in its
normal condition or fermented, has any deleterious effect upon the
system, even when taken in large quantities.” In regard to the use
of glucose as a substitute for malt in beer-making, it is asserted
by some authorities that dietetic advantages to be derived from pure
malt will be to some extent wanting in the extractive matters of beer
manufactured partially from the artificial product. A distinction
between glucose and maltose, to the advantage of the latter, is also
made. The brewer, on the other hand, claims that sugar is sugar,
whether obtained from the malting of grain or from the conversion of
starch by the aid of acids. Regarding these bodies merely as sources of
alcohol, attempts to differentiate between them are of little service.
The superiority claimed for barley malt over its substitutes would
rather appear to be due to its greater richness in certain soluble
constituents, more especially those containing nitrogen and phosphoric
acid.[72] A proposed law to prohibit the use of all malt substitutes
has recently been rejected by the German Reichstag. In the English Beer
Adulteration Act (1886), however, it is directed that, in case beer
(ale or porter) made from other substances than hops and barley-malt is
offered for sale, the fact shall be mentioned on a prominent placard,
stating the nature of the foreign ingredients.

The addition of sodium bicarbonate is resorted to in order to increase
the effervescing power of the beverage, and, possibly in some
instances, to neutralise the acids formed by the souring of new and
hastily prepared beer.[73] One of the chief objections to which certain
inferior varieties of American lager beer are open is that they are
not allowed to “age” properly. The apparent gain to the brewer of such
beer consists in an economy of time and ice; he is also enabled to turn
over his invested capital sooner than the more scrupulous manufacturer,
who is thus placed in a disadvantageous position so far as trade
competition is concerned. It is stated that some of the beer made in
the neighbourhood of New York is sent out for consumption two weeks
after its brewing.[74] Beer of this character would be apt to contain
abnormally large proportions of dextrine, dextrose, etc., as well as
be contaminated with unchanged yeast and other products of imperfect
fermentation. It is said to be the practice to submit it to a process
of clarification by means of isinglass and cream of tartar, and then
impart additional life to the product by adding sodium bicarbonate,
which is used in the form of cartridges or pills, and in a proportion
of two ounces of the salt to the keg of beer.[75] Such a beverage
obviously possesses very little claim to the name “lager” beer. It is,
perhaps, to this reprehensible practice that many of the deleterious
effects on the digestive organs which sometimes follow the consumption
of considerable quantities of _poor grades_ of lager beer are to be
ascribed; and it is often asserted to be the fact that beer drinkers
who have daily drunk from 20 to 25 glasses of German beer with apparent
impunity, experience disagreeable results from the habitual consumption
of much smaller quantities of some varieties of American lager.

It should be remarked, in this connection, that the brewer is by no
means responsible for all of the sophistications to which beer is
exposed, as after it leaves his hands it may be watered by the retailer
as well as allowed to deteriorate in quality by careless methods of
preservation. From all procurable information, it would appear that the
only questionable features of beer brewing, as now generally carried on
in the United States, are the following:–

1st. The use of corn and other meals, and of artificial glucose as
substitutes for malted barley.

2nd. The use of sodium bicarbonate, to impart additional life to the
beer, and the occasional use of common salt.

Concerning the alleged employment of artificial bitters in beer
it should be stated, that a few years since, when a very marked
increase occurred in the price of hops, other bitter preparations
were advertised and offered for sale in the market; unfortunately,
but little authentic data can be secured in regard to the extent of
their use. At present, this form of adulteration has apparently been
discontinued. It is worthy of notice, that the addition of hops to
beer was originally considered a falsification, and was prohibited
in England by legal enactments. In regard to the manufacture and
sale of partially fermented beer, the question of the prevalence of
this practice must be regarded as undetermined. No objection exists
to the proper use of isinglass or other forms of gelatine for the
clarification of beer.

Of 476 samples of beer tested by Dr. F. E. Engelhardt, of the New York
State Board of Health, about one-quarter gave evidence of the use of
malt substitutes in their manufacture, but no sample was conclusively
shown to be adulterated with bitters other than hops.

The examination of beer properly includes an inspection of its
physical characteristics, such as taste, colour, and transparency, the
determination of the specific gravity, quantitative estimations of
the proportions of alcohol, carbonic acid, extractive matter, sugar,
organic acids, ash and phosphoric acid, and qualitative tests for the
detection of the presence of artificial substitutes for malt and hops.

When of good quality, beer exhibits a bright and transparent colour,
a faint but not disagreeable aroma, and a clean and slightly bitter
taste. It should be free from any signs of viscosity, the appearance of
which is usually an indication of the presence of unchanged yeast.

The specific gravity of beer is determined by first removing the excess
of carbonic acid by repeatedly agitating the sample in a capacious
glass flask, or by pouring it from one beaker into another several
times, and then filling a specific gravity bottle with the liquid and
allowing it to stand at rest until all air or gas bubbles have escaped;
the weight of the bottle and its contents is now taken at 15°. In order
to determine the proportion of alcohol present, 100 c.c. of the beer
are introduced in a suitable flask which is connected with a Liebig’s
condenser and subjected to distillation until about one-half of the
quantity taken has passed over. The distillate is then made up to its
original volume by the addition of water, and its density ascertained
by means of the specific gravity bottle, from which the percentage of
alcohol present (by weight and by volume) is readily obtained upon
referring to the alcoholometric table on p. 144. The frothing of beer
and the volatilisation of the free acids present are best obviated by
the addition of a little tannic acid and baryta-water to the sample
before the distillation. An indirect method for the determination
of alcohol in beer is also frequently employed. It is accomplished
by first ascertaining the density of the liquor, next removing the
alcohol present by evaporation over the water-bath, subsequently adding
sufficient water to restore the original volume and again taking
the specific gravity of the product. The density of spirit of equal
strength to the beer taken (X) is obtained by the formula, D/D´ = X,
in which D is the original gravity of the sample, and D´ the gravity
of the de-alcoholised liquor when made up to its first volume. The
following table (see p. 144) from ‘Watts’ Dictionary of Chemistry’
gives the percentages of alcohol by volume and weight, corresponding to
different densities at 15°.

The amount of carbonic acid is conveniently found by introducing 100
c.c. of the _well-cooled_ beer into a rather large flask, provided
with a delivery-tube which connects, first with a wash-bottle
containing concentrated sulphuric acid, next with a U-tube, filled
with fused calcium chloride. The latter is connected with a Liebig’s
bulb containing a solution of potassium hydroxide, then with a U-tube
containing solid potassium hydroxide, both of which have previously
been tared. The flask is heated over a water-bath until the evolution
of carbonic acid ceases, after which, the gas remaining in the
apparatus is caused to traverse the potash bulb by drawing air through
it. This is done by means of a tube attached to the flask and reaching
below the surface of the beer. At its other extremity, it is drawn
out to a fine point and connected with a small potash bulb (for the
retention of atmospheric carbonic acid), by aid of a rubber tube,
which permits of breaking the glass point before drawing air through
the apparatus. The amount of carbonic acid present in the sample is
ascertained by the increase of weight found in the larger potash bulb
and U-tube.


Volume | Weight |Specific Gravity.
per cent.|per cent.|
1·0 | 0·80 | 0·99850
1·1 | 0·88 | 0·99835
1·2 | 0·96 | 0·99820
1·3 | 1·04 | 0·99805
1·4 | 1·12 | 0·99790
1·5 | 1·20 | 0·99775
1·6 | 1·28 | 0·99760
1·7 | 1·36 | 0·99745
1·8 | 1·44 | 0·99730
1·9 | 1·52 | 0·99715
2·0 | 1·60 | 0·99700
2·1 | 1·68 | 0·99686
2·2 | 1·76 | 0·99672
2·3 | 1·84 | 0·99658
2·4 | 1·92 | 0·99644
2·5 | 2·00 | 0·99630
2·6 | 2·08 | 0·99616
2·7 | 2·16 | 0·99602
2·8 | 2·24 | 0·99588
2·9 | 2·32 | 0·99574
3·0 | 2·40 | 0·99560
3·1 | 2·48 | 0·99546
3·2 | 2·56 | 0·99532
3·3 | 2·64 | 0·99518
3·4 | 2·72 | 0·99504
3·5 | 2·80 | 0·99490
3·6 | 2·88 | 0·99476
3·7 | 2·96 | 0·99462
3·8 | 3·04 | 0·99448
3·9 | 3·12 | 0·99434
4·0 | 3·20 | 0·99420
4·1 | 3·28 | 0·99406
4·2 | 3·36 | 0·99392
4·3 | 3·44 | 0·99378
4·4 | 3·52 | 0·99364
4·5 | 3·60 | 0·99350
4·6 | 3·68 | 0·99336
4·7 | 3·76 | 0·99322
4·8 | 3·84 | 0·99308
4·9 | 3·92 | 0·99294
5·0 | 4·00 | 0·99280
5·1 | 4·08 | 0·99267
5·2 | 4·16 | 0·99254
5·3 | 4·24 | 0·99241
5·4 | 4·32 | 0·99228
5·5 | 4·40 | 0·99215
5·6 | 4·48 | 0·99202
5·7 | 4·56 | 0·99189
5·8 | 4·64 | 0·99176
5·9 | 4·72 | 0·99163
6·0 | 4·81 | 0·99150
6·1 | 4·89 | 0·99137
6·2 | 4·97 | 0·99124
6·3 | 5·05 | 0·99111
6·4 | 5·13 | 0·99098
6·5 | 5·21 | 0·99085
6·6 | 5·30 | 0·99072
6·7 | 5·38 | 0·99059
6·8 | 5·46 | 0·99046
6·9 | 5·54 | 0·99033
7·0 | 5·62 | 0·99020
7·1 | 5·70 | 0·99008
7·2 | 5·78 | 0·98996
7·3 | 5·86 | 0·98984
7·4 | 5·94 | 0·98972
7·5 | 6·02 | 0·98960
7·6 | 6·11 | 0·98949
7·7 | 6·19 | 0·98936
7·8 | 6·27 | 0·98924
7·9 | 6·35 | 0·98912
8·0 | 6·43 | 0·98900

The proportion of malt extract in beer can be directly determined by
the evaporation of 5 or 10 c.c. of the sample in a capacious platinum
dish over the water-bath and drying the residue until constant weight
is obtained.[76] It should be allowed to cool under a bell-jar over
calcium chloride, before weighing. Usually the estimation is made
by an indirect process, which consists in removing the alcohol by
evaporation, bringing the liquid up to its original volume by the
addition of water, and then taking its specific gravity and determining
the percentage of malt extract by means of the following table:–


Specific | Per Cent.
Gravity. |Malt Extract.
1·000 | 0·000
1·001 | 0·250
1·002 | 0·500
1·003 | 0·750
1·004 | 1·000
1·005 | 1·250
1·006 | 1·500
1·007 | 1·750
1·008 | 2·000
1·009 | 2·250
1·010 | 2·500
1·011 | 2·750
1·012 | 3·000
1·013 | 3·250
1·014 | 3·500
1·015 | 3·750
1·016 | 4·000
1·017 | 4·250
1·018 | 4·500
1·019 | 4·750
1·020 | 5·000
1·021 | 5·250
1·022 | 5·500
1·023 | 5·750
1·024 | 6·000
1·025 | 6·244
1·026 | 6·488
1·027 | 6·731
1·028 | 6·975
1·029 | 7·219
1·030 | 7·463
1·031 | 7·706
1·032 | 7·950
1·033 | 8·195
1·034 | 8·438
1·035 | 8·681
1·036 | 8·925
1·037 | 9·170
1·038 | 9·413
1·039 | 9·657
1·040 | 9·901
1·041 | 10·142
1·042 | 10·381
1·043 | 10·619
1·044 | 10·857
1·045 | 11·095
1·046 | 11·333
1·047 | 11·595
1·048 | 11·809
1·049 | 12·047
1·050 | 12·285
1·051 | 12·523
1·052 | 12·761
1·053 | 13·000
1·054 | 13·238
1·055 | 13·476
1·056 | 13·714
1·057 | 13·952
1·058 | 14·190
1·059 | 14·428
1·060 | 14·666
1·061 | 14·904
1·062 | 15·139
1·063 | 15·371
1·064 | 15·604
1·065 | 15·837
1·066 | 16·070
1·067 | 16·302
1·068 | 16·534
1·069 | 16·767
1·070 | 17·000

The sugar contained in beer is best determined by by taking 50 c.c.
of the sample, adding 10 c.c. of plumbic basic acetate solution, and
making the volume of the mixture up to 300 c.c. with distilled water.
After standing for some time the solution is passed through a dry
filter. It is then examined by cautiously adding it from a burette to
10 c.c. of Fehling’s solution (diluted with 40 c.c. of distilled water
and brought to the boiling-point), until the blue colour of the latter
disappears (see p. 111). It should be borne in mind that, while 10
c.c. of Fehling’s solution are reduced by 0·05 gramme of glucose, it
requires 0·075 gramme of maltose to effect the same reduction.

In order to estimate the dextrine, 10 c.c. of the beer are reduced by
evaporation to about 4 c.c., and heated with 1 c.c. of dilute sulphuric
acid to 110° by means of an oil-bath in a strong hermetically closed
glass tube for five hours. At the completion of this operation the
solution is neutralised with sodium hydroxide, diluted, and the total
glucose determined by Fehling’s reagent, as just described. The glucose
due to the conversion of the dextrine is found by deducting the amount
of maltose (expressed in terms of glucose) previously obtained from the
total glucose; 10 parts of glucose represent 9 parts of dextrine.

The organic acids (acetic and lactic) are estimated as follows:–(_a_)
_Acetic acid_, by distilling 100 c.c. of the sample almost to
dryness, and titrating the distillate with decinormal soda solution;
(_b_) _Lactic acid_, by dissolving the residue remaining after the
distillation in water, and either determining its acidity by decinormal
soda, or by treating the residue with water and a little sulphuric
acid, adding barium carbonate to the mixture, heating in the water-bath
and filtering, the precipitate being thoroughly washed with hot water.
The filtrate is then concentrated to a syrup by evaporation, and
agitated in a test-tube with a mixture of 1 part each of sulphuric
acid, alcohol, and water, and 10 parts of ether. After standing at rest
for some time, the ethereal solution is separated by means of a pipette
and evaporated to dryness in a tared capsule. The residue (impure
lactic acid) can be weighed, or it is dissolved in water, the solution
treated with zinc carbonate, and the lactic acid determined as zinc
lactate, which contains 54·5 per cent. of the anhydrous acid.

Phosphoric acid may be estimated in the beer directly by first
expelling the carbonic acid, then adding a small quantity of potassium
acetate, heating, and titrating with a standard solution of uranium
acetate, using potassium ferrocyanide as the indicator. It can also be
determined gravimetrically in the ash.

The estimation of the ash is made by evaporating 100 c.c. of the sample
in a weighed platinum dish to dryness, and incinerating the residue at
a rather moderate heat, so as to avoid volatilisation of the chlorides.
The amount of ash in normal beer should never exceed 0·5 per cent.,
the usual proportion being about 0·3 per cent.; this would naturally
be increased by the addition of sodium bicarbonate or sodium chloride
to the beer. The complete analysis of the ash is seldom necessary, but
it is often of importance to estimate the amount of sodium chloride
contained. This is effected by dissolving the ash-residue in distilled
water and precipitating the chlorine from an aliquot portion of the
solution by silver nitrate; one part of the precipitate obtained
represents 0·409 part of common salt. The proportion of sodium
chloride in pure beer is very inconsiderable, but it may be added to
the beverage either to improve the flavour or to create thirst. For
the determination of phosphoric acid, a weighed portion of the ash
is dissolved in nitric acid, the solution evaporated to dryness, and
the residue boiled with water containing a little nitric acid. It is
then filtered, concentrated by evaporation, an excess of ammonium
molybdate solution added, and the mixture set aside for about ten
hours, after which the precipitate formed is separated by filtration
and dissolved in ammonium hydroxide. A solution of magnesium sulphate
(mixed with a considerable quantity of ammonium chloride) is now added,
and the precipitated ammonio-magnesium phosphate collected, washed,
ignited, and weighed, 100 parts of this precipitate contain 64 parts of
phosphoric anhydride (P_{2}O_{5}).

The positive detection of the presence of artificial substitutes
for malt in beer is a matter of considerable difficulty. According
to Haarstick, a large proportion of commercial glucose contains a
substance termed _amylin_, which exerts a strong dextro-rotary effect
upon polarised light, but is not destroyed by fermentation, and upon
these facts is based a process for the identification of starch-sugar
in beer. It is executed by evaporating 1 litre of the sample to the
consistency of a syrup and separating the dextrine present by the
gradual addition of 95 per cent. alcohol.[77] After standing at
rest for several hours the liquid is filtered, the greater portion
of the alcohol removed from the filtrate by distillation, and the
residual fluid evaporated to dryness over the water-bath. The solid
residue is then diluted to about a litre, yeast added, and the sugar
present decomposed by allowing fermentation to take place for three
or four days, at a temperature of 20°. It was found that, under these
conditions, pure beer afforded a solution which was optically inactive
when examined by the polariscope, while beer prepared from artificial
glucose gave a solution possessing decided dextro-rotary power. The use
of rice and glucose in the manufacture of beer is also indicated when
there is a deficiency in the proportion of phosphoric acid in the ash,
and of the extract, which applies, although to a somewhat less extent,
if wheat or corn meal has been substituted for barley malt.

The following conclusions were reached by a commission of chemists
appointed in Germany to determine standards for beer:–A fixed relation
between the quantity of alcohol and extract in beer does not invariably
exist. As a rule in Bavarian and lager beer, for 1 part by weight of
alcohol a maximum of 2 parts and a minimum of 1·5 parts of extract
should be present. In case malt has been replaced by glucose, or other
non-nitrogenous substances, the percentage of nitrogen in the extract
will fall below 0·65. The acidity should not exceed 3 c.c. of normal
alkali solution for 100 c.c. of beer. The ash should not exceed 0·3
per cent. The maximum proportion of glycerine should not exceed 0·25
per cent. For clarification, the following means are permissible:
Filtration, the use of shavings, etc., and of isinglass or other forms
of gelatine; for preservation, carbonic acid gas, and salicylic acid
may be employed–the latter, however, only in beer which is intended
for exportation to countries where its use is not prohibited.

Several samples of so-called “beer preservatives” examined by the
author, consisted of a solution of sodium salicylate and borax,
dissolved in glycerine. Salicylic acid is employed in order to
prevent fermentation in beer, which is exposed to great variations
in temperature. Its presence is detected by the following process,
suggested by Röse,[78] which is equally applicable to wine:–The beer
(or wine) is acidulated with sulphuric acid, and well shaken with its
own volume of a mixture of equal parts of ether and petroleum naphtha.
After standing at rest, the ethereal layer is removed by a pipette,
and evaporated or distilled until reduced to a few c.c. A little water
and a few drops of a dilute ferric chloride solution are then added,
and the liquid filtered: in presence of salicylic acid, the filtrate
will exhibit a violet colour. In the case of wines, where the presence
of tannic acid might interfere with the salicylic acid reaction, the
filtrate is re-acidulated, then diluted, and the treatment with the
ether mixture and iron chloride repeated. The second residue will
now show the violet coloration, even in wines rich in tannin, and
containing but 0·2 milligramme of salicylic acid per litre. The tannin
can also be removed by precipitation with gelatine, and the colour
test for salicylic acid subsequently applied. Glycerine is likewise
sometimes used as a preservative of beer, and is also added to render
the liquor richer in appearance, by communicating a viscosity to the
froth which causes it to adhere longer to the sides of the glass. It
can be quantitatively estimated by evaporating 100 c.c. of the sample
in a capsule at a temperature of 75°, until the carbonic acid has
been expelled, then adding about 5 grammes of magnesium hydroxide,
and thoroughly stirring the mixture until it forms a homogeneous,
semifluid mass. The contents of the dish are allowed to cool, and are
then well digested with 50 c.c. of absolute alcohol, and the fluid
portion afterwards separated by decantation, the residual mass being
again treated with 20 c.c. of absolute alcohol, and the alcoholic
solution thus obtained added to the first. The malose, parapeptone,
etc., present in the solution are now precipitated by adding (with
constant stirring) 300 c.c. of anhydrous ether, after which the liquid
is filtered, and the filtrate concentrated, at first by spontaneous
evaporation, subsequently by heating over the water-bath, until it
assumes the consistency of a syrup, when it is placed in an exsiccator
which connects with an air-pump, where it is allowed to remain for
twenty-four hours. The syrupy residue is then digested with 20 c.c. of
absolute alcohol and filtered, the filtrate being collected in a tared
capsule, which is again exposed to the heat of the water-bath, and
allowed to remain in the exsiccator for twelve hours, after which it
is weighed. The increase in weight gives approximately the amount of
glycerine contained in the beer examined.[79]

It is certain that many of the poisonous substances which in former
times have been detected in beer, such as strychnine, hyoscyamine,
picric acid, and picrotoxine, are not used at present. It is much
more probable that such bitters as gentian and quassia may be met
with, especially at times when hops are dear. These latter far
exceed hops in bitterness, and do not exert deleterious effects upon
health. Willow bark, or its active principle, salicine, has also been
employed. The detection of some of the most apocryphal substitutes
for hops is effected, according to Wiltstein,[80] by the following
method: One litre of the beer is concentrated over the water-bath to
a syrupy liquor, which is introduced into a rather capacious tared
cylinder and weighed. The gum, dextrine, and mineral salts are first
separated by adding to the syrup five times its weight of 95 per cent.
alcohol, with which it is thoroughly mixed, and allowed to digest for
twenty-four hours. The clear, supernatant solution is now drawn off,
and the residue treated with a fresh quantity of alcohol, which is
afterwards united with the solution first obtained, the whole being
then evaporated until the alcohol is expelled. A small portion of the
residue is dissolved in a little water, and tested for picric acid,
as described later on. The remainder is repeatedly shaken with about
six times its weight of pure benzol, which is subsequently removed
by decantation, the operation being then repeated with fresh benzol,
the two solutions added and evaporated to dryness at a very moderate
temperature. The residue thus obtained is divided into three portions,
which are placed in small porcelain dishes and tested as follows:–

To one portion a little nitric acid (sp. gr. 1·330) is added; if a
red coloration ensues, _brucine_ is present; if a violet colour,
_colchicine_. A second portion is treated with concentrated sulphuric
acid; the production of a red colour indicates the presence of
_colocynthine_. To a third portion, a few fragments of potassium
dichromate and a little sulphuric acid are added; if a purple-violet
coloration takes place, _strychnine_ is present.

The portion of the syrup which has remained undissolved by benzol is
first dried over the water-bath, and then agitated with pure amylic
alcohol, by which treatment picrotoxine and aloes, if present, will go
in solution, and impart a bitter taste to the liquid.

The solution can be examined as subsequently directed for picrotoxine;
the presence of aloes is best recognised by the characteristic
saffron-like odour possessed by this body. The syrup which remains
after the successive treatments with benzol and amylic alcohol is
next freed from any remaining traces of the latter compound by means
of blotting-paper, and then thoroughly agitated with anhydrous ether,
which is afterwards removed and allowed to spontaneously evaporate.
If the residue now obtained exhibits a wormwood-like aroma, and gives
a reddish yellow solution, which rapidly changes to a deep blue when
treated with concentrated sulphuric acid, _absinthine_ is present. The
syrup insoluble in ether may still contain quassine, gentipicrine, and
menyanthine, and the presence of any of these bodies is indicated if
it possesses a bitter taste, since the bitter principle of hops would
have been removed by the foregoing treatment with solvents. The syrup
is dissolved in a little warm water, the solution filtered and divided
into two portions. To one a concentrated ammoniacal solution of silver
nitrate is added, and the mixture heated: if it remains clear, quassine
is probably present; the formation of a metallic mirror points to the
presence of either gentipicrine or menyanthine. A second portion of the
aqueous solution is cautiously evaporated in a small porcelain capsule,
and a few drops of strong sulphuric acid are added to the residue: if
no change takes place in the cold, but upon applying heat a carmine-red
coloration appears, _gentipicrine_ is present; if a yellowish brown
colour, which afterwards changes to a violet, is produced, the presence
of _menyanthine_ is probable.[81]

Picric acid can be detected by means of the following tests:–

1. Upon shaking pure beer with animal charcoal, it becomes decolorised,
whereas beer containing picric acid retains a lemon-yellow colour after
this treatment.

2. The bitter taste of normal beer is removed by treatment with a
little plumbic diacetate and filtering, which is not the case with the
flavour imparted by the use of picric acid.

3. Unbleached wool or pure flannel will acquire a decided yellow colour
if boiled for a short time in beer adulterated with picric acid, and
afterwards washed.

4. Upon agitating 20 c.c. of the suspected beer in a test-tube with 10
c.c. of amylic alcohol, allowing the mixture to remain at rest, and
then removing the amylic alcohol, a solution is obtained which contains
any picric acid present in the sample treated. It is evaporated to
dryness, the residue dissolved in a little warm distilled water, and
the aqueous solution submitted to the following tests:–

(_a_) To one portion a concentrated solution of potassium cyanide is
added; in presence of picric acid, a blood-red colour is produced, due
to the formation of iso-purpuric acid.

(_b_) A second portion is treated with a solution of cupric-ammonium
sulphate; if picric acid be present, minute greenish crystals of
cupric-ammonium picrate will be formed.

(_c_) To a third portion, a little ammonium sulphide, containing free
ammonium hydroxide, is added; in presence of picric acid, picramic acid
is produced, the formation of which is accelerated by the application
of heat, and is made evident by the appearance of an intensely red

The detection of _cocculus indicus_, or its poisonous alkaloid,
_picrotoxine_, may be effected by first agitating the beer with
plumbic acetate, filtering, removing the lead from the filtrate by
means of sulphuretted hydrogen, and again filtering. The filtrate is
first boiled, then carefully evaporated until it possesses a thickish
consistency, when it is shaken up with animal charcoal, which is
afterwards brought upon a filter, washed with a very little cold water,
and dried at 100°. The picrotoxine possibly present is then extracted
from the animal charcoal by boiling it with strong alcohol, from
which the alkaloid separates on evaporating the solution, either in
quadrilateral prisms or in feathery tufts.

Again reverting to beer adulteration, Prof. H. B. Cornwall has lately
made an interesting report in this regard.[82] Several years ago, in
reply to a circular issued by the “Business Men’s Moderation Society
of New York City,” the “Association of United Lager Beer Brewers”
asserted that the only substitutes for barley malt employed were corn
starch, corn meal, rice, glucose, and grape sugar, no artificial
bitters being used. The addition of glucose and grape sugar, the
association stated, was not necessarily on account of economy, but
had for its object an increase in the strength of the wort, without
resorting to concentration and the production of beer of desirable
flavour and colour. Rüdlinger[83] denies that beer is subjected to
injurious adulteration in Germany. He states substantially as follows:
“Cases of sickness, frequently claimed to be caused by the beer, are
due either to excess or to the consumption of the new and incompletely
fermented beverage. It has been affirmed that brewers often economise
in hops by the use of other and deleterious bitters, and that picric
acid and strychnine have been employed for this purpose. Nonsense, once
written, is frequently copied by hundreds, and in this way circulates
among the masses. The maximum amount of hops used in beer is really
inconsiderable, and, there exists no necessity for resorting to foreign
substitutes, even in seasons when the price of hops is abnormally high,
since the proportion of this ingredient could be slightly decreased
without incurring the danger of detection which would follow the use of
artificial bitters.” On the other hand, it is certain that, _in past
years_, such injurious additions as cocculus indicus, picric acid,
aloes, etc., have actually been discovered by chemists of high standing
in bitter ale and other forms of beer. A. Schmidt,[84] asserts that
glycerine, alum, and sodium bicarbonate are added to beer, and states
that beer, poor in extractive and alcoholic constituents, is liable
to become sour, a defect which is remedied by the use of alkalies
and chalk, the resulting disagreeable taste being disguised by means
of glycerine. The same authority deprecates the use of glucose on
account of the absence of nutritious albuminoids and phosphates in this
substance. It would certainly appear obvious that the direct addition
of starch-sugar to the wort, which results in augmenting the alcoholic
strength of beer without correspondingly increasing the proportion of
valuable extractive matter, is of doubtful propriety. Grains are less
open to this objection. Of these, maize is generally regarded as the
best substitute for barley malt, both on account of its similarity in
composition and its cheapness. The International Congress of Medical
Sciences, held at Brussels in 1875, adopted the following resolutions:–

1. Genuine beer should be made from grain and hops.

2. No other substances should replace these, either wholly or partially.

3. All substitutes should be considered as adulterations, and should
come under the penalty of the law, even if not deleterious to health.

The German Brewers’ Association, at its Frankfort meeting, defined
wholesome beer as the produce of malt, hops, yeast, and water with
a partial substitution of the malt by starch meal, rice, maize, and
glucose, and regarded the use of some malt substitutes as permissible
on scientific and hygienic grounds. It recommended, however, that, in
case such substitutes are employed, the beer so prepared should be
designated by a distinctive name, such as “rice beer,” “sugar beer,”

The darker varieties of beer are sometimes artificially coloured by
the addition of caramel, and, although the result reached is virtually
the same as that caused by the over-roasting of malt, the practice is
prohibited in Germany unless the product is designated as “coloured
beer.”[85] According to Guyot, some of the Bavarian beer sold in Paris
is coloured with methyl orange.[86] Licorice is employed in beer
brewing in Germany, both on account of its sweetening power and for
clarifying purposes.

In regard to the use of artificial preservatives, such as salicylic
acid and sodium bisulphite, it is very probable that articles of
food which have been treated with these preparations are not readily
digested. Their use, moreover, should be unnecessary, if due care has
been exercised in the manufacture of the beer. This is especially
applicable to beer intended for home consumption.