In the Andes, the longest mountain range in the world, 200 kilometers north of Lima, the capital of Peru, there is a dry plateau covered by loess. People used to think it was just a small mound of natural formation. But by the end of the 20th century, archaeological Scientists discovered that an ancient city was buried under the loess, so archaeologists unearthed it.
According to the radiocarbon dating method, the city existed around 2600 BC. It stood quietly on a dry terrace overlooking the fertile Supe River valley below. It has a history of more than 5,000 years. After a reconstruction, it was abandoned around 1800 BC. With the passage of time, Caral was gradually buried under the loess.
Who would have thought that a thousand-year-old civilized city is buried in the mountains? At this point, this delicate and complex holy city began to be unveiled.
When Karaal was fully exposed, the first thing that caught people’s eyes was its exquisite architecture.
In our imagination, the ancient people should build houses how convenient and how to build them, or where they need to be built, one village to the east and one village to the west. But Caral’s builders obviously have advanced planning awareness, and they planned the construction of the entire city from the beginning. The entire city was built around a large square in the center, surrounded by 6 pyramids, which were built almost at the same time as the Egyptian pyramids. There are many concentrated residential areas. From the remaining traces, you can find that people who live here like to constantly remodel, maintain, and renovate their houses. They are people who love life, and only then will they continue to improve their living. surroundings. The square in the center of the city shows that there were activities that needed people to gather. There are many temples in the city, and it seems that there is no shortage of religious activities.
The most amazing thing is that the area where Caral is located belongs to the Pacific Rim Seismic Belt, which is prone to earthquakes. There have been many strong earthquakes in history. For example, in 1908 and 1974, there were earthquakes of magnitude 8 or higher on the Richter scale. The 8.0 magnitude earthquake on the Richter scale occurred on August 15, 2007, which killed more than 500 people. It collapsed, and 80% of the city of Pisco, Peru, was destroyed. The ruins of the ancient city can be well preserved. What is the reason for this?
This attracted the attention of scientists. Obviously people at that time also realized that earthquakes occurred from time to time in the area where they lived and took anti-seismic measures, because scientists discovered that there is a flexible structure between the foundation of Caral’s house and the main body of the house. Therefore, when an earthquake occurs, elasticity The structure can reduce the amplitude of the house, ensure that the house will not easily collapse, and allow people to have time to escape. This earthquake-resistant method more than 5,000 years ago is similar to the elastic rubber bearing technology of modern Japan.
It is also worth mentioning that there are ventilation ducts underground in the city. These ventilation ducts use the “Venturi effect”. The Venturi effect is named after its discoverer, the Italian physicist Venturi, and refers to the decrease in pressure near a fluid flowing at high speed, which produces an adsorption effect. The ventilation duct is similar to a Venturi tube. Behind the entrance is a section of tapered pipe. When the air passes through, it suddenly enters a relatively narrow area, and the flow velocity becomes faster. When the air comes out of the pipe, a low pressure area will be formed at the exit to make the surrounding The air is replenished. The continuous contact between air and fuel enables the fuel to be fully combusted and reduces the production of harmful gases such as carbon monoxide. The “Venturi effect” has not been studied until modern times, and people more than five thousand years ago may not know what the “Venturi effect” is, but they have been able to apply it to daily life.
In addition, in terms of agricultural production, they have a complete irrigation system and a special house. Researchers call it a “laboratory”. Here people predict weather changes, make agricultural plans, and determine planting and harvesting dates based on these. And adjust according to climate change, it is a flexible and scientific planting method.
In terms of pharmacology, archaeologists discovered that people at that time used willow bark to treat painful symptoms such as headaches. Now we know that willow bark contains the active ingredient of aspirin, which has antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects.
Every aspect of the life of the Kalal shows that this was once a civilized city. In fact, here is still a harmonious city.
City of harmony
In Caral, man and nature are in harmony.
Archaeologists are first concerned about the location of the city. If you live in a society that is completely dependent on agriculture, and now there are two plots of land in front of you, one is a fertile river valley with lush vegetation, the other is arid and barren terrace, and there is windy sand, you would choose that one. Build a home? You will probably choose a fertile river valley without thinking.
But the residents of Karar did not. They did the opposite and chose barren and dry terraces. It is really confusing. Researchers believe that their purpose of choosing such a site may be to protect the green plants in the valley, because there is evidence that they regard nature as a belief.
The survival of ancient humans was inseparable from agriculture, and the people of Kalal were no exception. But in the face of the green river valley, he never tried to cut down and burn the forest to make land. Most of the ancient civilizations around the world lived on grains, but traces of grains were not found in the Kalal site. Instead, a large number of traces of cotton planting were found. It seems that their main crop is cotton, not grains. From the leftovers, it was found that the food they ate was vegetables such as pumpkins, beans, etc. they grew, or fish and shellfish caught. Don’t overfish, don’t over-exploit, and regard nature as a god.
There is also harmony between people. The holy city of Caral has formed a complementary economy with other coastal cities. People in the coastal areas bring them fish and other seafood, and exchange vegetables and handmade products. At the site, archaeologists discovered a flute made of animal bones, which should also be one of the commodities traded.
Civilization is often accompanied by war. Even if there is no large-scale battle, there will be small-scale conflicts. Even if there is no city wall, there will be walls dividing the territory. However, in the process of excavating and researching Caral, archaeologists were surprised to find that There are no weapons, no city walls, no trenches, and no remains of human violence. It is impossible for them to destroy all weapons and all violent remains, so there is only one explanation. There has never been a war here.
At the same time, archaeologists discovered that there are no valuable metals such as gold and silver. Wars often stem from interests. Karaal was built in a barren land, with neither rich natural resources nor wealth. Other tribes or cities seemed to have no need to wage war against it.
And why didn’t Caral launch wars against other coastal areas or more affluent places? Perhaps it is because natural conditions restrict them, making Karaal not as developed as other regions, and they have no ability to invade other regions. Maybe they don’t have war in their minds, they never thought of plundering others, and just hope to live their lives. day. We don’t know the specific reason. In short, this is a harmonious city without war.
Later, Caral was abandoned and Huang Mu buried it, quietly waiting for someone to lift her veil one day, and then asked the world in a simple manner: “What have you learned?”